Mortality after cure of testicular seminoma

Gunar K. Zagars, Matthew Ballo, Andrew K. Lee, Sara S. Strom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

228 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the incidence of potentially treatment-related mortality in long-term survivors of testicular seminoma treated by orchiectomy and radiation therapy (XRT). Patients and Methods: From all 477 men with stage I or II testicular seminoma treated at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) with postorchiectomy megavoltage XRT between 1951 and 1999, 453 never sustained relapse of their disease. Long-term survival for these 453 men was evaluated with the person-years method to determine the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). SMRs were calculated for all causes of death, cardiac deaths, and cancer deaths using standard US data for males. Results: After a median follow-up of 13.3 years, the 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-year actuarial survival rates were 93%, 79%, 59%, and 26%, respectively. The all-cause SMR over the entire observation interval was 1.59 (99% CI, 1.21 to 2.04). The SMR was not excessive for the first 15 years of follow-up: SMR, 1.30 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.77); but beyond 15 years the SMR was 1.85 (99% CI, 1.30 to 2.55). The overall cardiac-specific SMR was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.24). The cardiac SMR was significantly elevated only beyond 15 years (P < .01). The overall cancer-specific SMR was 1.91 (99% CI, 1.14 to 2.98). The cancer SMR was also significant only after 15 years of follow-up (P < .01). An increased mortality was evident in patients treated with and without mediastinal XRT. Conclusion: Long-term survivors of seminoma treated with postorchiectomy XRT are at significant excess risk of death as a result of cardiac disease or second cancer. Management strategies that minimize these risks but maintain the excellent hitherto observed cure rates need to be actively pursued.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)640-647
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Seminoma
Mortality
Heart Neoplasms
Survivors
Neoplasms
Orchiectomy
Second Primary Neoplasms
Cause of Death
Heart Diseases
Radiotherapy
Survival Rate
Observation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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Mortality after cure of testicular seminoma. / Zagars, Gunar K.; Ballo, Matthew; Lee, Andrew K.; Strom, Sara S.

In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2004, p. 640-647.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zagars, Gunar K. ; Ballo, Matthew ; Lee, Andrew K. ; Strom, Sara S. / Mortality after cure of testicular seminoma. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2004 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 640-647.
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abstract = "Purpose: To determine the incidence of potentially treatment-related mortality in long-term survivors of testicular seminoma treated by orchiectomy and radiation therapy (XRT). Patients and Methods: From all 477 men with stage I or II testicular seminoma treated at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) with postorchiectomy megavoltage XRT between 1951 and 1999, 453 never sustained relapse of their disease. Long-term survival for these 453 men was evaluated with the person-years method to determine the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). SMRs were calculated for all causes of death, cardiac deaths, and cancer deaths using standard US data for males. Results: After a median follow-up of 13.3 years, the 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-year actuarial survival rates were 93{\%}, 79{\%}, 59{\%}, and 26{\%}, respectively. The all-cause SMR over the entire observation interval was 1.59 (99{\%} CI, 1.21 to 2.04). The SMR was not excessive for the first 15 years of follow-up: SMR, 1.30 (95{\%} CI, 0.93 to 1.77); but beyond 15 years the SMR was 1.85 (99{\%} CI, 1.30 to 2.55). The overall cardiac-specific SMR was 1.61 (95{\%} CI, 1.21 to 2.24). The cardiac SMR was significantly elevated only beyond 15 years (P < .01). The overall cancer-specific SMR was 1.91 (99{\%} CI, 1.14 to 2.98). The cancer SMR was also significant only after 15 years of follow-up (P < .01). An increased mortality was evident in patients treated with and without mediastinal XRT. Conclusion: Long-term survivors of seminoma treated with postorchiectomy XRT are at significant excess risk of death as a result of cardiac disease or second cancer. Management strategies that minimize these risks but maintain the excellent hitherto observed cure rates need to be actively pursued.",
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