National multi-institutional cooperative on urolithiasis in children

Age is a significant predictor of urine abnormalities

Gina M. Cambareri, Larisa Kovacevic, Aaron P. Bayne, Dana Giel, Sean Corbett, Elleson Schurtz, Troy Sukhu, George Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary Introduction Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a growing problem and prior studies have shown the greatest increase in nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population. Metabolic abnormalities have historically been cited as the primary cause of pediatric nephrolithiasis; however, dietary and other factors such as obesity have also been studied with mixed results. Objective We reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis to determine the number and types of metabolic abnormalities present on 24-h urine analysis. Study design We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis from 1999-2013 across four different institutions. The subjects were excluded if they had a history of spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, cerebral palsy, isolated bladder stones, or if they were on medical therapy for nephrolithiasis before the first 24-h urine collection. Results There were 206 subjects included in the analysis with an average age of 13 (±3.9) years. The patients were stratified into two age groups based on an apparent bimodal distribution of metabolic abnormalities, ≤10 years and >10 years of age. Metabolic abnormalities were present in 130 children (63.1%) and there was a difference between the groups, with children ≤10 years more likely to have a metabolic abnormality compared with those >10 years of age (75% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.0443) on univariate analysis. In children ≤10 years hypercalciuria was the most common disorder present (48.4%), and in children >10 years hypocitraturia was the most common disorder present (26.1%). Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume (p = 0.006), elevated urinary oxalate (p = 0.0351), elevated urinary calcium (p < 0.001), elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate (p < 0.001), and elevated supersaturation of calcium oxalate (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume, hyperoxaluria, elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate and a trend towards hypercalciuria (Table). Discussion Our study reveals that younger children are more likely to have a metabolic abnormality present on 24-h urine analysis. This has important implications when deciding on treatment options, with younger children potentially requiring more aggressive management with medical therapy. Older children were more likely to have low urinary volume and their most common metabolic abnormality was hypocitraturia. Although dietary factors have not been established as the definitive reason behind the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population, older children may benefit more from diet modification with a strong focus on increasing volume intake. Conclusion We found differences in younger compared with older age groups in terms of the number and types of metabolic disorders present. Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have a metabolic disorder including elevations in calcium, oxalate and supersaturation of calcium phosphate, while children >10 years of age were more likely to have low urinary volume. These differences have important implications for future investigative studies on the rising incidence as well as the best course of treatment for children with nephrolithiasis. (Table presented.).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1934
Pages (from-to)218-223
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Nephrolithiasis
Urolithiasis
Urine
Pediatrics
Urinary Bladder Calculi
Hypercalciuria
Neurogenic Urinary Bladder
Urine Specimen Collection
Spinal Dysraphism
Oxalates
Cerebral Palsy
Age Groups
Obesity
Calcium
Incidence
Therapeutics
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Urology

Cite this

National multi-institutional cooperative on urolithiasis in children : Age is a significant predictor of urine abnormalities. / Cambareri, Gina M.; Kovacevic, Larisa; Bayne, Aaron P.; Giel, Dana; Corbett, Sean; Schurtz, Elleson; Sukhu, Troy; Chiang, George.

In: Journal of Pediatric Urology, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1934, 01.01.2015, p. 218-223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cambareri, Gina M. ; Kovacevic, Larisa ; Bayne, Aaron P. ; Giel, Dana ; Corbett, Sean ; Schurtz, Elleson ; Sukhu, Troy ; Chiang, George. / National multi-institutional cooperative on urolithiasis in children : Age is a significant predictor of urine abnormalities. In: Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2015 ; Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 218-223.
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abstract = "Summary Introduction Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a growing problem and prior studies have shown the greatest increase in nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population. Metabolic abnormalities have historically been cited as the primary cause of pediatric nephrolithiasis; however, dietary and other factors such as obesity have also been studied with mixed results. Objective We reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis to determine the number and types of metabolic abnormalities present on 24-h urine analysis. Study design We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis from 1999-2013 across four different institutions. The subjects were excluded if they had a history of spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, cerebral palsy, isolated bladder stones, or if they were on medical therapy for nephrolithiasis before the first 24-h urine collection. Results There were 206 subjects included in the analysis with an average age of 13 (±3.9) years. The patients were stratified into two age groups based on an apparent bimodal distribution of metabolic abnormalities, ≤10 years and >10 years of age. Metabolic abnormalities were present in 130 children (63.1{\%}) and there was a difference between the groups, with children ≤10 years more likely to have a metabolic abnormality compared with those >10 years of age (75{\%} vs. 60.6{\%}, p = 0.0443) on univariate analysis. In children ≤10 years hypercalciuria was the most common disorder present (48.4{\%}), and in children >10 years hypocitraturia was the most common disorder present (26.1{\%}). Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume (p = 0.006), elevated urinary oxalate (p = 0.0351), elevated urinary calcium (p < 0.001), elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate (p < 0.001), and elevated supersaturation of calcium oxalate (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume, hyperoxaluria, elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate and a trend towards hypercalciuria (Table). Discussion Our study reveals that younger children are more likely to have a metabolic abnormality present on 24-h urine analysis. This has important implications when deciding on treatment options, with younger children potentially requiring more aggressive management with medical therapy. Older children were more likely to have low urinary volume and their most common metabolic abnormality was hypocitraturia. Although dietary factors have not been established as the definitive reason behind the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population, older children may benefit more from diet modification with a strong focus on increasing volume intake. Conclusion We found differences in younger compared with older age groups in terms of the number and types of metabolic disorders present. Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have a metabolic disorder including elevations in calcium, oxalate and supersaturation of calcium phosphate, while children >10 years of age were more likely to have low urinary volume. These differences have important implications for future investigative studies on the rising incidence as well as the best course of treatment for children with nephrolithiasis. (Table presented.).",
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T1 - National multi-institutional cooperative on urolithiasis in children

T2 - Age is a significant predictor of urine abnormalities

AU - Cambareri, Gina M.

AU - Kovacevic, Larisa

AU - Bayne, Aaron P.

AU - Giel, Dana

AU - Corbett, Sean

AU - Schurtz, Elleson

AU - Sukhu, Troy

AU - Chiang, George

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N2 - Summary Introduction Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a growing problem and prior studies have shown the greatest increase in nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population. Metabolic abnormalities have historically been cited as the primary cause of pediatric nephrolithiasis; however, dietary and other factors such as obesity have also been studied with mixed results. Objective We reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis to determine the number and types of metabolic abnormalities present on 24-h urine analysis. Study design We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis from 1999-2013 across four different institutions. The subjects were excluded if they had a history of spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, cerebral palsy, isolated bladder stones, or if they were on medical therapy for nephrolithiasis before the first 24-h urine collection. Results There were 206 subjects included in the analysis with an average age of 13 (±3.9) years. The patients were stratified into two age groups based on an apparent bimodal distribution of metabolic abnormalities, ≤10 years and >10 years of age. Metabolic abnormalities were present in 130 children (63.1%) and there was a difference between the groups, with children ≤10 years more likely to have a metabolic abnormality compared with those >10 years of age (75% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.0443) on univariate analysis. In children ≤10 years hypercalciuria was the most common disorder present (48.4%), and in children >10 years hypocitraturia was the most common disorder present (26.1%). Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume (p = 0.006), elevated urinary oxalate (p = 0.0351), elevated urinary calcium (p < 0.001), elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate (p < 0.001), and elevated supersaturation of calcium oxalate (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume, hyperoxaluria, elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate and a trend towards hypercalciuria (Table). Discussion Our study reveals that younger children are more likely to have a metabolic abnormality present on 24-h urine analysis. This has important implications when deciding on treatment options, with younger children potentially requiring more aggressive management with medical therapy. Older children were more likely to have low urinary volume and their most common metabolic abnormality was hypocitraturia. Although dietary factors have not been established as the definitive reason behind the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population, older children may benefit more from diet modification with a strong focus on increasing volume intake. Conclusion We found differences in younger compared with older age groups in terms of the number and types of metabolic disorders present. Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have a metabolic disorder including elevations in calcium, oxalate and supersaturation of calcium phosphate, while children >10 years of age were more likely to have low urinary volume. These differences have important implications for future investigative studies on the rising incidence as well as the best course of treatment for children with nephrolithiasis. (Table presented.).

AB - Summary Introduction Pediatric nephrolithiasis is a growing problem and prior studies have shown the greatest increase in nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population. Metabolic abnormalities have historically been cited as the primary cause of pediatric nephrolithiasis; however, dietary and other factors such as obesity have also been studied with mixed results. Objective We reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis to determine the number and types of metabolic abnormalities present on 24-h urine analysis. Study design We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients with a history of nephrolithiasis from 1999-2013 across four different institutions. The subjects were excluded if they had a history of spina bifida, neurogenic bladder, cerebral palsy, isolated bladder stones, or if they were on medical therapy for nephrolithiasis before the first 24-h urine collection. Results There were 206 subjects included in the analysis with an average age of 13 (±3.9) years. The patients were stratified into two age groups based on an apparent bimodal distribution of metabolic abnormalities, ≤10 years and >10 years of age. Metabolic abnormalities were present in 130 children (63.1%) and there was a difference between the groups, with children ≤10 years more likely to have a metabolic abnormality compared with those >10 years of age (75% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.0443) on univariate analysis. In children ≤10 years hypercalciuria was the most common disorder present (48.4%), and in children >10 years hypocitraturia was the most common disorder present (26.1%). Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume (p = 0.006), elevated urinary oxalate (p = 0.0351), elevated urinary calcium (p < 0.001), elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate (p < 0.001), and elevated supersaturation of calcium oxalate (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have normal volume, hyperoxaluria, elevated supersaturation of calcium phosphate and a trend towards hypercalciuria (Table). Discussion Our study reveals that younger children are more likely to have a metabolic abnormality present on 24-h urine analysis. This has important implications when deciding on treatment options, with younger children potentially requiring more aggressive management with medical therapy. Older children were more likely to have low urinary volume and their most common metabolic abnormality was hypocitraturia. Although dietary factors have not been established as the definitive reason behind the rising incidence of nephrolithiasis in the adolescent population, older children may benefit more from diet modification with a strong focus on increasing volume intake. Conclusion We found differences in younger compared with older age groups in terms of the number and types of metabolic disorders present. Children ≤10 years of age were more likely to have a metabolic disorder including elevations in calcium, oxalate and supersaturation of calcium phosphate, while children >10 years of age were more likely to have low urinary volume. These differences have important implications for future investigative studies on the rising incidence as well as the best course of treatment for children with nephrolithiasis. (Table presented.).

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