Neurotransmitter organization and connections of turtle cortex: implications for the evolution of mammalian isocortex

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Abstract

Telencephalic cortex in turtles is a simple three layered-structure. The dorsal most part of this structure is thought to resemble the reptilian forerunner of at least parts of mammalian isocortex. This dorsal part of turtle cortex contains several functionally distinct regions that show similarity in their connections and function to specific areas in mammalian isocortex. The types of neurons found in turtle dorsal cortex (as defined by their morphology and neurotransmitter content) also show great similarity to those observed in mammals, with the major exception that turtle cortex appears to lack the types of neurons found in granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. Similar results have also been observed in other living reptiles. Thus, one major step in the evolution of reptilian cortex into mammalian cortex must have been the addition of the types of neurons found in the granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. These observations for turtles also suggest that turtle cortex in particular and reptilian telencephalic cortex in general must differ functionally from mammalian isocortex with respect to those features associated with the laminar and columnar organization of isocortex. These issues are discussed in more detail below and in Reiner (1991).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)735-748
Number of pages14
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part A: Physiology
Volume104
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993

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Turtles
Neocortex
Neurons
Neurotransmitter Agents
Telencephalon
Mammals
Reptiles

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

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title = "Neurotransmitter organization and connections of turtle cortex: implications for the evolution of mammalian isocortex",
abstract = "Telencephalic cortex in turtles is a simple three layered-structure. The dorsal most part of this structure is thought to resemble the reptilian forerunner of at least parts of mammalian isocortex. This dorsal part of turtle cortex contains several functionally distinct regions that show similarity in their connections and function to specific areas in mammalian isocortex. The types of neurons found in turtle dorsal cortex (as defined by their morphology and neurotransmitter content) also show great similarity to those observed in mammals, with the major exception that turtle cortex appears to lack the types of neurons found in granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. Similar results have also been observed in other living reptiles. Thus, one major step in the evolution of reptilian cortex into mammalian cortex must have been the addition of the types of neurons found in the granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. These observations for turtles also suggest that turtle cortex in particular and reptilian telencephalic cortex in general must differ functionally from mammalian isocortex with respect to those features associated with the laminar and columnar organization of isocortex. These issues are discussed in more detail below and in Reiner (1991).",
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N2 - Telencephalic cortex in turtles is a simple three layered-structure. The dorsal most part of this structure is thought to resemble the reptilian forerunner of at least parts of mammalian isocortex. This dorsal part of turtle cortex contains several functionally distinct regions that show similarity in their connections and function to specific areas in mammalian isocortex. The types of neurons found in turtle dorsal cortex (as defined by their morphology and neurotransmitter content) also show great similarity to those observed in mammals, with the major exception that turtle cortex appears to lack the types of neurons found in granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. Similar results have also been observed in other living reptiles. Thus, one major step in the evolution of reptilian cortex into mammalian cortex must have been the addition of the types of neurons found in the granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. These observations for turtles also suggest that turtle cortex in particular and reptilian telencephalic cortex in general must differ functionally from mammalian isocortex with respect to those features associated with the laminar and columnar organization of isocortex. These issues are discussed in more detail below and in Reiner (1991).

AB - Telencephalic cortex in turtles is a simple three layered-structure. The dorsal most part of this structure is thought to resemble the reptilian forerunner of at least parts of mammalian isocortex. This dorsal part of turtle cortex contains several functionally distinct regions that show similarity in their connections and function to specific areas in mammalian isocortex. The types of neurons found in turtle dorsal cortex (as defined by their morphology and neurotransmitter content) also show great similarity to those observed in mammals, with the major exception that turtle cortex appears to lack the types of neurons found in granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. Similar results have also been observed in other living reptiles. Thus, one major step in the evolution of reptilian cortex into mammalian cortex must have been the addition of the types of neurons found in the granular and supragranular layers of mammalian isocortex. These observations for turtles also suggest that turtle cortex in particular and reptilian telencephalic cortex in general must differ functionally from mammalian isocortex with respect to those features associated with the laminar and columnar organization of isocortex. These issues are discussed in more detail below and in Reiner (1991).

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