Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUGin saccharomyces cerevisiae

Jennifer J. Tate, Rajendra Rai, Terrance Cooper

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5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2D mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUGrequirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2D mutation, does not require tRNACUGfor its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This component is highly sensitive to the function of the rare glutamine tRNACUG, which cannot be replaced by the predominant glutamine tRNACAA. Our observations also demonstrate distinct mechanistic differences between the responses of Gln3 and Gat1 to rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 and nitrogen starvation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-474
Number of pages20
JournalGenetics
Volume199
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

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Starvation
Glutamine
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Transcription Factors
Nitrogen
Sirolimus
Methionine Sulfoximine
Transfer RNA
Leucine
Mutation
leucylleucine
Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase
Protein Precursors
Growth
Proline
Cytoplasm
Phosphotransferases
Down-Regulation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics

Cite this

@article{205f8fee40ab40138978958866561760,
title = "Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUGin saccharomyces cerevisiae",
abstract = "A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2D mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUGrequirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2D mutation, does not require tRNACUGfor its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This component is highly sensitive to the function of the rare glutamine tRNACUG, which cannot be replaced by the predominant glutamine tRNACAA. Our observations also demonstrate distinct mechanistic differences between the responses of Gln3 and Gat1 to rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 and nitrogen starvation.",
author = "Tate, {Jennifer J.} and Rajendra Rai and Terrance Cooper",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Nitrogen starvation and TorC1 inhibition differentially affect nuclear localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 transcription factors through the rare glutamine tRNACUGin saccharomyces cerevisiae

AU - Tate, Jennifer J.

AU - Rai, Rajendra

AU - Cooper, Terrance

PY - 2014/2/1

Y1 - 2014/2/1

N2 - A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2D mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUGrequirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2D mutation, does not require tRNACUGfor its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This component is highly sensitive to the function of the rare glutamine tRNACUG, which cannot be replaced by the predominant glutamine tRNACAA. Our observations also demonstrate distinct mechanistic differences between the responses of Gln3 and Gat1 to rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 and nitrogen starvation.

AB - A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2D mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUGrequirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2D mutation, does not require tRNACUGfor its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors. This component is highly sensitive to the function of the rare glutamine tRNACUG, which cannot be replaced by the predominant glutamine tRNACAA. Our observations also demonstrate distinct mechanistic differences between the responses of Gln3 and Gat1 to rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 and nitrogen starvation.

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