Non-avian animal reservoirs present a source of influenza A PB1-F2 proteins with novel virulence-enhancing markers

Irina V. Alymova, Ian A. York, Jonathan Mccullers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PB1-F2 protein, expressed from an alternative reading frame of most influenza A virus (IAV) PB1 segments, may possess specific residues associated with enhanced inflammation (L62, R75, R79, and L82) and cytotoxicity (I68, L69, and V70). These residues were shown to increase the pathogenicity of primary viral and secondary bacterial infections in a mouse model. In contrast to human seasonal influenza strains, virulence-associated residues are present in PB1-F2 proteins from pandemic H1N1 1918, H2N2 1957, and H3N2 1968, and highly pathogenic H5N1 strains, suggesting their contribution to viruses' pathogenic phenotypes. Non-human influenza strains may act as donors of virulent PB1-F2 proteins. Previously, avian influenza strains were identified as a potential source of inflammatory, but not cytotoxic, PB1-F2 residues. Here, we analyze the frequency of virulence-associated residues in PB1-F2 sequences from IAVs circulating in mammalian species in close contact with humans: Pigs, horses, and dogs. All four inflammatory residues were found in PB1-F2 proteins from these viruses. Among cytotoxic residues, I68 was the most common and was especially prevalent in equine and canine IAVs. Historically, PB1-F2 from equine (about 75%) and canine (about 20%) IAVs were most likely to have combinations of the highest numbers of residues associated with inflammation and cytotoxicity, compared to about 7% of swine IAVs. Our analyses show that, in addition to birds, pigs, horses, and dogs are potentially important sources of pathogenic PB1-F2 variants. There is a need for surveillance of IAVs with genetic markers of virulence that may be emerging from these reservoirs in order to improve pandemic preparedness and response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere111603
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014

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influenza
Human Influenza
Horses
Virulence
Animals
virulence
Viruses
horses
Swine
dogs
Pandemics
pandemic
Cytotoxicity
swine
cytotoxicity
Canidae
animals
Proteins
proteins
inflammation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Non-avian animal reservoirs present a source of influenza A PB1-F2 proteins with novel virulence-enhancing markers. / Alymova, Irina V.; York, Ian A.; Mccullers, Jonathan.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 11, e111603, 01.11.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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