Nutrient intake and physical exercise significantly impact physical performance, body composition, blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation in male rats

Richard J. Bloomer, John Henry M. Schriefer, Trint A. Gunnels, Sang Rok Lee, Helen J. Sable, Marie van der Merwe, Randal K. Buddington, Randal Buddington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1109
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 17 2018

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Body Composition
nutrient intake
blood lipids
body composition
exercise
Oxidative Stress
oxidative stress
inflammation
Exercise
Inflammation
Lipids
Food
rats
biomarkers
Biomarkers
exercise equipment
interleukin-1
interleukin-10
Interleukin-1
diet

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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Nutrient intake and physical exercise significantly impact physical performance, body composition, blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation in male rats. / Bloomer, Richard J.; Schriefer, John Henry M.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Lee, Sang Rok; Sable, Helen J.; van der Merwe, Marie; Buddington, Randal K.; Buddington, Randal.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 8, 1109, 17.08.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bloomer, Richard J. ; Schriefer, John Henry M. ; Gunnels, Trint A. ; Lee, Sang Rok ; Sable, Helen J. ; van der Merwe, Marie ; Buddington, Randal K. ; Buddington, Randal. / Nutrient intake and physical exercise significantly impact physical performance, body composition, blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation in male rats. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 8.
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T1 - Nutrient intake and physical exercise significantly impact physical performance, body composition, blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation in male rats

AU - Bloomer, Richard J.

AU - Schriefer, John Henry M.

AU - Gunnels, Trint A.

AU - Lee, Sang Rok

AU - Sable, Helen J.

AU - van der Merwe, Marie

AU - Buddington, Randal K.

AU - Buddington, Randal

PY - 2018/8/17

Y1 - 2018/8/17

N2 - Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake.

AB - Background: Humans consuming a purified vegan diet known as the "Daniel Fast" realize favorable changes in blood lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers, with subjective reports of improved physical capacity. Objective: We sought to determine if this purified vegan diet was synergistic with exercise in male rats. Methods: Long–Evans rats (n = 56) were assigned to be exercise trained (+E) by running on a treadmill three days per week at a moderate intensity or to act as sedentary controls with normal activity. After the baseline physical performance was evaluated by recording run time to exhaustion, half of the animals in each group were fed ad libitum for three months a purified diet formulated to mimic the Daniel Fast (DF) or a Western Diet (WD). Physical performance was evaluated again at the end of month 3, and body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected for measurements of lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Results: Physical performance at the end of month 3 was higher compared to baseline for both exercise groups (p < 0.05), with a greater percent increase in the DF + E group (99%) than in the WD + E group (51%). Body fat was lower in DF than in WD groups at the end of month 3 (p < 0.05). Blood triglycerides, cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly lower in the DF groups than in the WD groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in cytokines levels between the groups (p > 0.05), although IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated three-fold and two-fold in the rats fed the WD compared to the DF rats, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to a WD, a purified diet that mimics the vegan Daniel Fast provides significant anthropometric and metabolic benefits to rats, while possibly acting synergistically with exercise training to improve physical performance. These findings highlight the importance of macronutrient composition and quality in the presence of ad libitum food intake.

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