Pathophysiology of acute and chronic cardiac failure

Karl Weber, Joseph S. Janicki, Charles Campbell, Robert Replogle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cardiac (or myocardial) failure, a major health problem, can be defined using physiologic criteria that consider the adequacy of O2delivery relative to the body's O2 requirements. In clinical terms, cardiac failure may be described in terms of its chronicity or the extent to which signs and symptoms of right- versus left-sided heart failure are dominant. Congestive heart failure is a clinical syndrome that consists of a constellation of signs and symptoms that arise from congested organs and hyppperfused tissues. Acute cardiac failure occurs because of a decrease in myocardial contractility that can be offset by the Frank-Starling mechanism. In chronic cardiac failure dilatation and myocardial hypertrophy serve to restore ventricular function. Other compensatory responses that are invoked include a salt avid kidney, which mediates an expansion of the intravascular space, and the activation of the adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems and an increase in circulating arginine vasopressin. The management of acute and chronic cardiac failure can be derived from an understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for their appearance and include improving cardiac performance, as well as the distribution of systemic blood flow to tissues based on physiologic priorities and moment to moment variations in O2 requirements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-9
Number of pages7
JournalThe American Journal of Cardiology
Volume60
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 1987

Fingerprint

Heart Failure
Signs and Symptoms
Starlings
Ventricular Function
Arginine Vasopressin
Renin-Angiotensin System
Adrenergic Agents
Hypertrophy
Dilatation
Salts
Kidney
Health

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Pathophysiology of acute and chronic cardiac failure. / Weber, Karl; Janicki, Joseph S.; Campbell, Charles; Replogle, Robert.

In: The American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 60, No. 5, 14.08.1987, p. 3-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Weber, Karl ; Janicki, Joseph S. ; Campbell, Charles ; Replogle, Robert. / Pathophysiology of acute and chronic cardiac failure. In: The American Journal of Cardiology. 1987 ; Vol. 60, No. 5. pp. 3-9.
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