Patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines as active specific immunotherapy: Results of exploratory phase I/II trials in patients with metastatic melanoma

Robert O. Dillman, Carol DePriest, Cristina DeLeon, Neil M. Barth, Lee Schwartzberg, Linda D. Beutel, Patric M. Schiltz, Shankar K. Nayak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Seventy-four (74) patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines. Cryopreserved irradiated tumor cells were injected weekly for 3 weeks, then monthly for 5 months. At a median follow up >6 years, the median event-free survival (EFS) was 4.5 months, with 13 patients alive and progression free 6-12 years later. Median overall survival (OS) was 20.5 months, with 29% 5-year OS. Tumor response rate was 9% among the 35 patients with evaluable disease who received at least 3 injections. Better survival was observed for patients who had minimal rather than clinically evident metastatic disease at the time vaccine therapy was initiated (5-yr OS 47% vs. 13%; p < 0.0001), received granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or interferon gamma as an adjuvant (5-yr EFS 26% vs. 0%; p < 0.0001) or received an average of <7 million cells for each of the first 3 injections, compared to those who received 7-11.9 million or >12 million cells per injection (5-yr EFS OS 35% vs. 24%; p = 0.041 and p = 0.034). There was a trend toward better EFS for those who had a positive delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to an intradermal injection of 1 million irradiated tumor cells at baseline, or converted to positive after 3 injections, compared to those whose DTH remained negative (5-yr EFS 39% vs. 18%; p = 0.159). This treatment approach is feasible, produces minimal toxicity, and is associated with long-term survival in a significant proportion of patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-321
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

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Active Immunotherapy
Tumor Cell Line
Melanoma
Vaccines
Disease-Free Survival
Survival
Delayed Hypersensitivity
Injections
Intradermal Injections
Neoplasms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines as active specific immunotherapy : Results of exploratory phase I/II trials in patients with metastatic melanoma. / Dillman, Robert O.; DePriest, Carol; DeLeon, Cristina; Barth, Neil M.; Schwartzberg, Lee; Beutel, Linda D.; Schiltz, Patric M.; Nayak, Shankar K.

In: Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, Vol. 22, No. 3, 01.06.2007, p. 309-321.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dillman, Robert O. ; DePriest, Carol ; DeLeon, Cristina ; Barth, Neil M. ; Schwartzberg, Lee ; Beutel, Linda D. ; Schiltz, Patric M. ; Nayak, Shankar K. / Patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines as active specific immunotherapy : Results of exploratory phase I/II trials in patients with metastatic melanoma. In: Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. 2007 ; Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 309-321.
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