Peripheral venous hypertension in chronic venous disease

Seshadri Raju, Alexander Knight, Lara Lamanilao, Nicholas Pace, Tamekia Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Microvascular venous hypertension has emerged as a central feature of chronic venous disease (CVD). Yet, the incidence and severity of peripheral venous hypertension in the clinical setting have not been reported. This is an observational study of venous hypertension in the lower limb of a large cohort of patients with suspected CVD referred to a single referral center during a 16-year period. Methods: Clinical and venous laboratory test data for 8868 limbs of 5792 patients with CVD symptoms seen from 1999 to 2015 were analyzed. Subset A limbs had a mix of obstruction/reflux or neither (n = 4132). These are limbs in which duplex ultrasound reflux (yes/no) status is known. The incidence and severity of obstruction in these limbs are unknown as tests of obstruction were not routinely performed. Subset B limbs had central obstruction (n = 159). These are limbs with intravascular ultrasound-proven stenosis in the iliac veins that was corrected by stent placement. Reflux was assessed by duplex ultrasound and air plethysmography (venous filling index [VFI90]). Pressure measurements included supine venous pressure, erect venous pressure, and ambulatory venous pressure (AMVP). Pressure measurements are categorized according to Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) clinical class, reflux and obstruction with Venn distributions of prevalence. Results: All pressures (supine, erect, and ambulatory) trended worse in higher CEAP clinical classes. Supine foot venous pressures were elevated in 70% and 76% of subsets A and B, respectively. A positive association between elevated supine pressures and reflux could not be shown in this study. Supine foot venous pressure did not worsen with increasing reflux in the two subsets, but erect foot venous pressure did. Elevated supine pressures were associated with obstruction in subset B. AMVP worsened in most higher reflux categories. Ambulatory venous hypertension was dominantly associated (Venn distribution) with reflux, less commonly with obstruction. Conclusions: Supine venous hypertension is associated with obstruction and does not worsen with reflux. In contrast, erect foot venous pressure worsens in severe reflux categories. Ambulatory venous hypertension worsens in higher CEAP clinical classes. It worsens with increasing reflux. AMVP is dominantly associated (Venn distribution) with reflux, not obstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)706-714
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Volume7
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

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Venous Pressure
Chronic Disease
Hypertension
Extremities
Foot
Pressure
Anatomy
Iliac Vein
Plethysmography
Incidence
Stents
Observational Studies
Lower Extremity
Pathologic Constriction
Referral and Consultation
Air

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Peripheral venous hypertension in chronic venous disease. / Raju, Seshadri; Knight, Alexander; Lamanilao, Lara; Pace, Nicholas; Jones, Tamekia.

In: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders, Vol. 7, No. 5, 01.09.2019, p. 706-714.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Raju, Seshadri ; Knight, Alexander ; Lamanilao, Lara ; Pace, Nicholas ; Jones, Tamekia. / Peripheral venous hypertension in chronic venous disease. In: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders. 2019 ; Vol. 7, No. 5. pp. 706-714.
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