Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica)-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

Bilal Hafeez, Weixiong Zhong, Joseph W. Fischer, Ala Mustafa, Xudong Shi, Louise Meske, Hao Hong, Weibo Cai, Thomas Havighurst, Kyung Mann Kim, Ajit K. Verma

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Abstract

We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2 × 106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p. five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p = 0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p = 0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p = 0.60) and lymph nodes (p = 0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p = 0.034) and lungs (p = 0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p = 0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)428-439
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Oncology
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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Plumbaginaceae
Medicinal Plants
Luciferases
Heterografts
Prostatic Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Growth
Lymph Nodes
Lung
Liver
Nude Mice
plumbagin
1,4-naphthoquinone
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Prostate
Neoplasms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica)-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. / Hafeez, Bilal; Zhong, Weixiong; Fischer, Joseph W.; Mustafa, Ala; Shi, Xudong; Meske, Louise; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, Kyung Mann; Verma, Ajit K.

In: Molecular Oncology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 01.01.2013, p. 428-439.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hafeez, Bilal ; Zhong, Weixiong ; Fischer, Joseph W. ; Mustafa, Ala ; Shi, Xudong ; Meske, Louise ; Hong, Hao ; Cai, Weibo ; Havighurst, Thomas ; Kim, Kyung Mann ; Verma, Ajit K. / Plumbagin, a medicinal plant (Plumbago zeylanica)-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer PC-3M-luciferase cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In: Molecular Oncology. 2013 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 428-439.
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abstract = "We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2 × 106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p. five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p = 0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p = 0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p = 0.60) and lymph nodes (p = 0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p = 0.034) and lungs (p = 0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p = 0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa.",
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AU - Hafeez, Bilal

AU - Zhong, Weixiong

AU - Fischer, Joseph W.

AU - Mustafa, Ala

AU - Shi, Xudong

AU - Meske, Louise

AU - Hong, Hao

AU - Cai, Weibo

AU - Havighurst, Thomas

AU - Kim, Kyung Mann

AU - Verma, Ajit K.

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N2 - We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2 × 106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p. five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p = 0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p = 0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p = 0.60) and lymph nodes (p = 0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p = 0.034) and lungs (p = 0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p = 0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa.

AB - We present here first time that Plumbagin (PL), a medicinal plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone, inhibits the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. In this study, human PCa PC-3M-luciferase cells (2 × 106) were injected into the prostate of athymic nude mice. Three days post cell implantation, mice were treated with PL (2 mg/kg body wt. i.p. five days in a week) for 8 weeks. Growth and metastasis of PC-3M-luciferase cells was examined weekly by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. PL-treatment significantly (p = 0.0008) inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenograft tumors. Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into liver (p = 0.037), but inhibition of metastasis into the lungs (p = 0.60) and lymph nodes (p = 0.27) was not observed to be significant. These results were further confirmed by histopathology of these organs. Results of histopathology demonstrated a significant inhibition of metastasis into lymph nodes (p = 0.034) and lungs (p = 0.028), and a trend to significance in liver (p = 0.075). None of the mice in the PL-treatment group showed PCa metastasis into the liver, but these mice had small metastasis foci into the lymph nodes and lungs. However, control mice had large metastatic foci into the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. PL-caused inhibition of the growth and metastasis of PC-3M cells accompanies inhibition of the expression of: 1) PKCε, pStat3Tyr705, and pStat3Ser727, 2) Stat3 downstream target genes (survivin and BclxL), 3) proliferative markers Ki-67 and PCNA, 4) metastatic marker MMP9, MMP2, and uPA, and 5) angiogenesis markers CD31 and VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that PL inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of human PCa PC3-M-luciferase cells, which could be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human PCa.

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