Potential neuroprotective role of astroglial exosomes against smoking-induced oxidative stress and HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system

Sabina Ranjit, Benjamin J. Patters, Kelli A. Gerth, Sanjana Haque, Sanjeev Choudhary, Santosh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: HIV-1-infected smokers are at risk of oxidative damage to neuronal cells in the central nervous system by both HIV-1 and cigarette smoke. Since neurons have a weak antioxidant defense system, they mostly depend on glial cells, particularly astrocytes, for protection against oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Astrocytes augment the neuronal antioxidant system by supplying cysteine-containing products for glutathione synthesis, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase, glucose for antioxidant regeneration via the pentose-phosphate pathway, and by recycling of ascorbic acid. Areas covered: The transport of antioxidants and energy substrates from astrocytes to neurons could possibly occur via extracellular nanovesicles called exosomes. This review highlights the neuroprotective potential of exosomes derived from astrocytes against smoking-induced oxidative stress, HIV-1 replication, and subsequent neurotoxicity observed in HIV-1-positive smokers. Expert opinion: During stress conditions, the antioxidants released from astrocytes either via extracellular fluid or exosomes to neurons may not be sufficient to provide neuroprotection. Therefore, we put forward a novel strategy to combat oxidative stress in the central nervous system, using synthetically developed exosomes loaded with antioxidants such as glutathione and the anti-aging protein Klotho.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)703-714
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Volume22
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 3 2018

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Exosomes
Oxidative stress
Neurology
HIV-1
Oxidative Stress
Central Nervous System
Antioxidants
Smoking
Astrocytes
Neurons
Glutathione
Pentoses
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Extracellular Fluid
Expert Testimony
Recycling
Smoke
Tobacco Products
Neuroglia
Catalase

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Potential neuroprotective role of astroglial exosomes against smoking-induced oxidative stress and HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system. / Ranjit, Sabina; Patters, Benjamin J.; Gerth, Kelli A.; Haque, Sanjana; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Kumar, Santosh.

In: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, Vol. 22, No. 8, 03.08.2018, p. 703-714.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Ranjit, Sabina ; Patters, Benjamin J. ; Gerth, Kelli A. ; Haque, Sanjana ; Choudhary, Sanjeev ; Kumar, Santosh. / Potential neuroprotective role of astroglial exosomes against smoking-induced oxidative stress and HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system. In: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. 2018 ; Vol. 22, No. 8. pp. 703-714.
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N2 - Introduction: HIV-1-infected smokers are at risk of oxidative damage to neuronal cells in the central nervous system by both HIV-1 and cigarette smoke. Since neurons have a weak antioxidant defense system, they mostly depend on glial cells, particularly astrocytes, for protection against oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Astrocytes augment the neuronal antioxidant system by supplying cysteine-containing products for glutathione synthesis, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase, glucose for antioxidant regeneration via the pentose-phosphate pathway, and by recycling of ascorbic acid. Areas covered: The transport of antioxidants and energy substrates from astrocytes to neurons could possibly occur via extracellular nanovesicles called exosomes. This review highlights the neuroprotective potential of exosomes derived from astrocytes against smoking-induced oxidative stress, HIV-1 replication, and subsequent neurotoxicity observed in HIV-1-positive smokers. Expert opinion: During stress conditions, the antioxidants released from astrocytes either via extracellular fluid or exosomes to neurons may not be sufficient to provide neuroprotection. Therefore, we put forward a novel strategy to combat oxidative stress in the central nervous system, using synthetically developed exosomes loaded with antioxidants such as glutathione and the anti-aging protein Klotho.

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