Preparation and Characterization of Chloramines

Edwin Thomas, Matthew B. Grisham, M. Margaret Jefferson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

302 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the preparation and characterization of chloramines. Chloramines represent an important class of leukocyte oxidants and contribute to oxidative microbicidal, cytotoxic and cytolytic activities, the chemical modification of regulatory substances, and the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen compounds. These are products of the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or other chlorinating agents with primary and secondary amines. The production of HOCl by leukocytes is the result of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride (Cl) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HOCl is in equilibrium with hypochlorite (OCl) and chlorine (Cl2). The most abundant N-moieties available for reaction with HOCl in biological systems are primary amino groups, such as taurine, polyamines, amino sugars, lysine residues, and protein amino termini. Leukocyte peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of bromide (Br ), iodide (I), thiocyanate (SCN), and Cl. N–Cl derivatives are used within minutes of preparation to avoid decomposition or rearrangement. However, most are stable at 4° for hours or days at the appropriate pH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-585
Number of pages17
JournalMethods in enzymology
Volume132
Issue numberC
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986

Fingerprint

Chloramines
Hypochlorous Acid
Leukocytes
Chlorides
Nitrogen Compounds
Amino Sugars
Peroxidases
Oxidation
Taurine
Chlorine
Chemical modification
Polyamines
Iodides
Biological systems
Bromides
Oxidants
Metabolism
Hydrogen Peroxide
Peroxidase
Lysine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Preparation and Characterization of Chloramines. / Thomas, Edwin; Grisham, Matthew B.; Margaret Jefferson, M.

In: Methods in enzymology, Vol. 132, No. C, 01.01.1986, p. 569-585.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thomas, Edwin ; Grisham, Matthew B. ; Margaret Jefferson, M. / Preparation and Characterization of Chloramines. In: Methods in enzymology. 1986 ; Vol. 132, No. C. pp. 569-585.
@article{b3327980deab421ba1f51333f2930b46,
title = "Preparation and Characterization of Chloramines",
abstract = "This chapter discusses the preparation and characterization of chloramines. Chloramines represent an important class of leukocyte oxidants and contribute to oxidative microbicidal, cytotoxic and cytolytic activities, the chemical modification of regulatory substances, and the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen compounds. These are products of the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or other chlorinating agents with primary and secondary amines. The production of HOCl by leukocytes is the result of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride (Cl–) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HOCl is in equilibrium with hypochlorite (OCl–) and chlorine (Cl2). The most abundant N-moieties available for reaction with HOCl in biological systems are primary amino groups, such as taurine, polyamines, amino sugars, lysine residues, and protein amino termini. Leukocyte peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of bromide (Br –), iodide (I–), thiocyanate (SCN–), and Cl–. N–Cl derivatives are used within minutes of preparation to avoid decomposition or rearrangement. However, most are stable at 4° for hours or days at the appropriate pH.",
author = "Edwin Thomas and Grisham, {Matthew B.} and {Margaret Jefferson}, M.",
year = "1986",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0076-6879(86)32042-1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "132",
pages = "569--585",
journal = "Methods in Enzymology",
issn = "0076-6879",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "C",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Preparation and Characterization of Chloramines

AU - Thomas, Edwin

AU - Grisham, Matthew B.

AU - Margaret Jefferson, M.

PY - 1986/1/1

Y1 - 1986/1/1

N2 - This chapter discusses the preparation and characterization of chloramines. Chloramines represent an important class of leukocyte oxidants and contribute to oxidative microbicidal, cytotoxic and cytolytic activities, the chemical modification of regulatory substances, and the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen compounds. These are products of the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or other chlorinating agents with primary and secondary amines. The production of HOCl by leukocytes is the result of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride (Cl–) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HOCl is in equilibrium with hypochlorite (OCl–) and chlorine (Cl2). The most abundant N-moieties available for reaction with HOCl in biological systems are primary amino groups, such as taurine, polyamines, amino sugars, lysine residues, and protein amino termini. Leukocyte peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of bromide (Br –), iodide (I–), thiocyanate (SCN–), and Cl–. N–Cl derivatives are used within minutes of preparation to avoid decomposition or rearrangement. However, most are stable at 4° for hours or days at the appropriate pH.

AB - This chapter discusses the preparation and characterization of chloramines. Chloramines represent an important class of leukocyte oxidants and contribute to oxidative microbicidal, cytotoxic and cytolytic activities, the chemical modification of regulatory substances, and the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen compounds. These are products of the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or other chlorinating agents with primary and secondary amines. The production of HOCl by leukocytes is the result of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride (Cl–) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HOCl is in equilibrium with hypochlorite (OCl–) and chlorine (Cl2). The most abundant N-moieties available for reaction with HOCl in biological systems are primary amino groups, such as taurine, polyamines, amino sugars, lysine residues, and protein amino termini. Leukocyte peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of bromide (Br –), iodide (I–), thiocyanate (SCN–), and Cl–. N–Cl derivatives are used within minutes of preparation to avoid decomposition or rearrangement. However, most are stable at 4° for hours or days at the appropriate pH.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0022928045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0022928045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0076-6879(86)32042-1

DO - 10.1016/S0076-6879(86)32042-1

M3 - Article

VL - 132

SP - 569

EP - 585

JO - Methods in Enzymology

JF - Methods in Enzymology

SN - 0076-6879

IS - C

ER -