Protein structural requirements and properties of membrane binding by γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing plasma proteins and peptides

R. A. Schwalbe, J. Ryan, David Stern, W. Kisiel, B. Dahlback, G. L. Nelsestuen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The membrane-binding characteristics of a number of modified vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides showed a general pattern of structural requirements. The amino-terminal peptides from human prothrombin (residues 1-41 and 1-44, 60:40) bovine factor X (residues 1-44), and bovine factor IX (residues 1-42), showed a general requirement for a free amino-terminal group, an intact disulfide, and the tyrosine homologous to Tyr44 of factor X for membrane binding. Consequently, the peptide from factor IX did not bind to membranes. Any of several modifications of the amino terminus, except reaction with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, abolished membrane binding by the factor X and prothrombin peptides. Calcium, but not magnesium, protected the amino terminus from chemical modification. The requirement for a free amino terminus was also shown to be true for intact prothrombin fragment 1, factor X, and factor IX. Although aggregation of the peptide-vesicle complexes greatly complicated accurate estimation of equilibrium binding constants, results with the factor X peptide indicated an affinity that was not greatly different from that of the parent protein. The most striking difference shown by the peptides was a requirement for about 10 times as much calcium as the parent proteins. In a manner similar to the parent proteins, the prothrombin and factor X peptides showed a large calcium-dependent quenching of tryptophan fluorescence. This fluorescence quenching in the peptides also required about 10 times the calcium needed by the parent proteins. Thus, the 1-45 region of the vitamin K-dependent proteins contained most of the membrane-binding structure but lacked component(s) needed for high-affinity calcium binding. Protein S that was modified by thrombin cleavage at Arg52 and Arg70 showed approximately the same behavior as the amino-terminal 45-residue peptides. That is, it bound to membranes with overall affinity that was similar to native protein S but required high calcium concentrations. These results suggested that the second disulfide loop of protein S (Cys47-Cys72) and prothrombin (Cys48-Cys61) were involved in high affinity calcium binding. Since factor X lacks a homologous disulfide loop, an alternative structure must serve a similar function. A striking property of protein S was dissociation from membranes by high calcium. While this property was shared by all the vitamin K-dependent proteins, protein S showed this most dramatically and supported protein-membrane binding by calcium bridging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20288-20296
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume264
Issue number34
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Factor X
Blood Proteins
Membranes
Peptides
Calcium
Acids
Protein S
Prothrombin
Proteins
Factor IX
Vitamin K
Disulfides
Quenching
Fluorescence
Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
Calcium-Binding Proteins
Chemical modification
Thrombin
Tryptophan
Magnesium

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Protein structural requirements and properties of membrane binding by γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing plasma proteins and peptides. / Schwalbe, R. A.; Ryan, J.; Stern, David; Kisiel, W.; Dahlback, B.; Nelsestuen, G. L.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 264, No. 34, 1989, p. 20288-20296.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schwalbe, R. A. ; Ryan, J. ; Stern, David ; Kisiel, W. ; Dahlback, B. ; Nelsestuen, G. L. / Protein structural requirements and properties of membrane binding by γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing plasma proteins and peptides. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1989 ; Vol. 264, No. 34. pp. 20288-20296.
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T1 - Protein structural requirements and properties of membrane binding by γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing plasma proteins and peptides

AU - Schwalbe, R. A.

AU - Ryan, J.

AU - Stern, David

AU - Kisiel, W.

AU - Dahlback, B.

AU - Nelsestuen, G. L.

PY - 1989

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N2 - The membrane-binding characteristics of a number of modified vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides showed a general pattern of structural requirements. The amino-terminal peptides from human prothrombin (residues 1-41 and 1-44, 60:40) bovine factor X (residues 1-44), and bovine factor IX (residues 1-42), showed a general requirement for a free amino-terminal group, an intact disulfide, and the tyrosine homologous to Tyr44 of factor X for membrane binding. Consequently, the peptide from factor IX did not bind to membranes. Any of several modifications of the amino terminus, except reaction with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, abolished membrane binding by the factor X and prothrombin peptides. Calcium, but not magnesium, protected the amino terminus from chemical modification. The requirement for a free amino terminus was also shown to be true for intact prothrombin fragment 1, factor X, and factor IX. Although aggregation of the peptide-vesicle complexes greatly complicated accurate estimation of equilibrium binding constants, results with the factor X peptide indicated an affinity that was not greatly different from that of the parent protein. The most striking difference shown by the peptides was a requirement for about 10 times as much calcium as the parent proteins. In a manner similar to the parent proteins, the prothrombin and factor X peptides showed a large calcium-dependent quenching of tryptophan fluorescence. This fluorescence quenching in the peptides also required about 10 times the calcium needed by the parent proteins. Thus, the 1-45 region of the vitamin K-dependent proteins contained most of the membrane-binding structure but lacked component(s) needed for high-affinity calcium binding. Protein S that was modified by thrombin cleavage at Arg52 and Arg70 showed approximately the same behavior as the amino-terminal 45-residue peptides. That is, it bound to membranes with overall affinity that was similar to native protein S but required high calcium concentrations. These results suggested that the second disulfide loop of protein S (Cys47-Cys72) and prothrombin (Cys48-Cys61) were involved in high affinity calcium binding. Since factor X lacks a homologous disulfide loop, an alternative structure must serve a similar function. A striking property of protein S was dissociation from membranes by high calcium. While this property was shared by all the vitamin K-dependent proteins, protein S showed this most dramatically and supported protein-membrane binding by calcium bridging.

AB - The membrane-binding characteristics of a number of modified vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides showed a general pattern of structural requirements. The amino-terminal peptides from human prothrombin (residues 1-41 and 1-44, 60:40) bovine factor X (residues 1-44), and bovine factor IX (residues 1-42), showed a general requirement for a free amino-terminal group, an intact disulfide, and the tyrosine homologous to Tyr44 of factor X for membrane binding. Consequently, the peptide from factor IX did not bind to membranes. Any of several modifications of the amino terminus, except reaction with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, abolished membrane binding by the factor X and prothrombin peptides. Calcium, but not magnesium, protected the amino terminus from chemical modification. The requirement for a free amino terminus was also shown to be true for intact prothrombin fragment 1, factor X, and factor IX. Although aggregation of the peptide-vesicle complexes greatly complicated accurate estimation of equilibrium binding constants, results with the factor X peptide indicated an affinity that was not greatly different from that of the parent protein. The most striking difference shown by the peptides was a requirement for about 10 times as much calcium as the parent proteins. In a manner similar to the parent proteins, the prothrombin and factor X peptides showed a large calcium-dependent quenching of tryptophan fluorescence. This fluorescence quenching in the peptides also required about 10 times the calcium needed by the parent proteins. Thus, the 1-45 region of the vitamin K-dependent proteins contained most of the membrane-binding structure but lacked component(s) needed for high-affinity calcium binding. Protein S that was modified by thrombin cleavage at Arg52 and Arg70 showed approximately the same behavior as the amino-terminal 45-residue peptides. That is, it bound to membranes with overall affinity that was similar to native protein S but required high calcium concentrations. These results suggested that the second disulfide loop of protein S (Cys47-Cys72) and prothrombin (Cys48-Cys61) were involved in high affinity calcium binding. Since factor X lacks a homologous disulfide loop, an alternative structure must serve a similar function. A striking property of protein S was dissociation from membranes by high calcium. While this property was shared by all the vitamin K-dependent proteins, protein S showed this most dramatically and supported protein-membrane binding by calcium bridging.

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