Pulmonary hypertension during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

A risk factor for severity of illness

Dai Kimura, Isabella F. McNamara, Jiajing Wang, Jay Fowke, Alina West, Ranjit Philip

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the most frequent cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. A few reports have suggested that pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection. We sought to determine the association between the pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and clinical outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 154 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who had an echocardiography performed during the admission. The association between pulmonary hypertension and clinical outcomes including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, prolonged ICU stay (>10 days), tracheal intubation, and need of high frequency oscillator ventilation was evaluated.Results: Echocardiography detected pulmonary hypertension in 29 patients (18.7%). Pulmonary hypertension was observed more frequently in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (n = 11/33, 33%), chronic lung disease of infancy (n = 12/25, 48%), prematurity (<37 weeks gestational age, n = 17/59, 29%), and Down syndrome (n = 4/10, 40%). The presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with morbidity (p < 0.001) and mortality (p = 0.02). However, in patients without these risk factors (n = 68), pulmonary hypertension was detected in five patients who presented with shock or poor perfusion. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension (OR = 5.9, 95% CI 2.2-16.3, p = 0.0005). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary hypertension is associated with ICU admission (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 2.2-18.8, p = 0.0007), intubation (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.3, p = 0.002), high frequency oscillator ventilation (OR = 8.4, 95% CI 2.95-23.98, p < 0.0001), and prolonged ICU stay (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.0-11.7, p = 0.0004).Conclusions: Pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus infection was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension detected during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Routine echocardiography is not warranted for previously healthy, haemodynamically stable patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)615-619
Number of pages5
JournalCardiology in the young
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Bronchiolitis
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Pulmonary Hypertension
Echocardiography
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Intensive Care Units
Lung Diseases
High-Frequency Ventilation
Chronic Disease
Intubation
Mortality
Morbidity
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Down Syndrome
Gestational Age
Heart Diseases
Shock
Multivariate Analysis
Perfusion

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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Pulmonary hypertension during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis : A risk factor for severity of illness. / Kimura, Dai; McNamara, Isabella F.; Wang, Jiajing; Fowke, Jay; West, Alina; Philip, Ranjit.

In: Cardiology in the young, Vol. 29, No. 5, 01.05.2019, p. 615-619.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Pulmonary hypertension during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: A risk factor for severity of illness",
abstract = "Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the most frequent cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. A few reports have suggested that pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection. We sought to determine the association between the pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and clinical outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 154 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who had an echocardiography performed during the admission. The association between pulmonary hypertension and clinical outcomes including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, prolonged ICU stay (>10 days), tracheal intubation, and need of high frequency oscillator ventilation was evaluated.Results: Echocardiography detected pulmonary hypertension in 29 patients (18.7{\%}). Pulmonary hypertension was observed more frequently in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (n = 11/33, 33{\%}), chronic lung disease of infancy (n = 12/25, 48{\%}), prematurity (<37 weeks gestational age, n = 17/59, 29{\%}), and Down syndrome (n = 4/10, 40{\%}). The presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with morbidity (p < 0.001) and mortality (p = 0.02). However, in patients without these risk factors (n = 68), pulmonary hypertension was detected in five patients who presented with shock or poor perfusion. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension (OR = 5.9, 95{\%} CI 2.2-16.3, p = 0.0005). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary hypertension is associated with ICU admission (OR = 6.4, 95{\%} CI 2.2-18.8, p = 0.0007), intubation (OR = 4.7, 95{\%} CI 1.8-12.3, p = 0.002), high frequency oscillator ventilation (OR = 8.4, 95{\%} CI 2.95-23.98, p < 0.0001), and prolonged ICU stay (OR = 4.9, 95{\%} CI 2.0-11.7, p = 0.0004).Conclusions: Pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus infection was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension detected during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Routine echocardiography is not warranted for previously healthy, haemodynamically stable patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.",
author = "Dai Kimura and McNamara, {Isabella F.} and Jiajing Wang and Jay Fowke and Alina West and Ranjit Philip",
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T1 - Pulmonary hypertension during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

T2 - A risk factor for severity of illness

AU - Kimura, Dai

AU - McNamara, Isabella F.

AU - Wang, Jiajing

AU - Fowke, Jay

AU - West, Alina

AU - Philip, Ranjit

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the most frequent cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. A few reports have suggested that pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection. We sought to determine the association between the pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and clinical outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 154 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who had an echocardiography performed during the admission. The association between pulmonary hypertension and clinical outcomes including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, prolonged ICU stay (>10 days), tracheal intubation, and need of high frequency oscillator ventilation was evaluated.Results: Echocardiography detected pulmonary hypertension in 29 patients (18.7%). Pulmonary hypertension was observed more frequently in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (n = 11/33, 33%), chronic lung disease of infancy (n = 12/25, 48%), prematurity (<37 weeks gestational age, n = 17/59, 29%), and Down syndrome (n = 4/10, 40%). The presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with morbidity (p < 0.001) and mortality (p = 0.02). However, in patients without these risk factors (n = 68), pulmonary hypertension was detected in five patients who presented with shock or poor perfusion. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension (OR = 5.9, 95% CI 2.2-16.3, p = 0.0005). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary hypertension is associated with ICU admission (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 2.2-18.8, p = 0.0007), intubation (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.3, p = 0.002), high frequency oscillator ventilation (OR = 8.4, 95% CI 2.95-23.98, p < 0.0001), and prolonged ICU stay (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.0-11.7, p = 0.0004).Conclusions: Pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus infection was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension detected during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Routine echocardiography is not warranted for previously healthy, haemodynamically stable patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

AB - Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the most frequent cause of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. A few reports have suggested that pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection. We sought to determine the association between the pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and clinical outcomes.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 154 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis who had an echocardiography performed during the admission. The association between pulmonary hypertension and clinical outcomes including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, prolonged ICU stay (>10 days), tracheal intubation, and need of high frequency oscillator ventilation was evaluated.Results: Echocardiography detected pulmonary hypertension in 29 patients (18.7%). Pulmonary hypertension was observed more frequently in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (n = 11/33, 33%), chronic lung disease of infancy (n = 12/25, 48%), prematurity (<37 weeks gestational age, n = 17/59, 29%), and Down syndrome (n = 4/10, 40%). The presence of pulmonary hypertension was associated with morbidity (p < 0.001) and mortality (p = 0.02). However, in patients without these risk factors (n = 68), pulmonary hypertension was detected in five patients who presented with shock or poor perfusion. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension (OR = 5.9, 95% CI 2.2-16.3, p = 0.0005). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary hypertension is associated with ICU admission (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 2.2-18.8, p = 0.0007), intubation (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.8-12.3, p = 0.002), high frequency oscillator ventilation (OR = 8.4, 95% CI 2.95-23.98, p < 0.0001), and prolonged ICU stay (OR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.0-11.7, p = 0.0004).Conclusions: Pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiography during respiratory syncytial virus infection was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease was associated with pulmonary hypertension detected during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Routine echocardiography is not warranted for previously healthy, haemodynamically stable patients with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

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DO - 10.1017/S1047951119000313

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JO - Cardiology in the Young

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SN - 1047-9511

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