Rapamycin-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts exhibit decreased anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model

Catherine Cagiannos, Omran R. Abul-Khoudoud, Waldemar DeRijk, Daniel H. Shell IV, Lisa K. Jennings, Elizabeth Tolley, Charles R. Handorf, Timothy Fabian, Randolph Geary, Scott Berceli, Mitchell Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that rapamycin coated onto, and eluted from, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts would diminish neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Methods: Rapamycin (also called sirolimus) was coated onto the luminal surface of 6-mm-internal-diameter thin-walled ePTFE grafts by using an adhesive polymer that allows timed release of the drug. An adhesive polymer that allows timed release of rapamycin from ePTFE was developed with commercially available chemicals and applied on 6-mm ePTFE grafts. Graft integrity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and rapamycin levels were quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-two mongrel pigs were randomized into three groups: untreated ePTFE (n = 6), adhesive-only coated ePTFE (n = 6), or adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE (n = 10). End-to-side unilateral aortoiliac bypasses were performed by using 6-mm-internal-diameter ePTFE grafts and standardized anastomotic lengths. Unilateral end-to-side aortoiliac ePTFE grafts (6-mm internal diameter) were inserted by using polypropylene sutures, 6-0 proximally and 7-0 distally; all anastomoses were 12 mm long. All animals received aspirin (325 mg orally) daily. All animals were given oral aspirin (325 mg) daily beginning on the day before surgery. At 28 days, the animals were killed, and the grafts were explanted in continuity with the adjacent aortic cuff and the outflow iliac artery. Variables compared between groups included graft patency, distal anastomotic length and cross-sectional narrowing, and intimal thickness at the arterial-graft junction indexed to the adjacent graft thickness. Microscopic analysis was performed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains on paraffin sections. A pathologist blinded to experimental groups graded sections for collagen deposition, neointima formation, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, medial necrosis, and aneurysmal degeneration. Results: All animals survived until they were killed without clinical evidence of limb ischemia or graft infection. Preplanned t tests in the context of one-way analysis of variance showed no difference in outcome measures between the untreated ePTFE and adhesive-only coated ePTFE groups; therefore, they were combined in further comparisons with the adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE group. The Rapamycine eluting expanded polytetrafluoroethylene group had longer anastomoses (85.6% vs 60.6% of the initial anastomotic length maintained; P < .0001) and less cross-sectional narrowing in the outflow graft (16.2% vs 28.5%; P = .0007) when compared with the other two groups by using two-tailed Student t tests. There was no evidence of medial necrosis or aneurysmal degeneration. All patent grafts had complete endothelialization on hematoxylin and eosin sections. Rapamycin was detectable and quantifiable in the arterial wall at 28 days after implantation. Conclusions: Rapamycin can be coated onto and eluted from ePTFE by using a nonionic polymer and a simple coating technique. At 4 weeks after implantation, the rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrate gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with non-drug-eluting ePTFE. Four weeks after implantation in a porcine model, rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrated gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with untreated and adhesive-only coated ePTFE grafts. Clinical Relevance: Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether patency will be improved. Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts may allow the use of prosthetic grafts in situations in which autologous vein is unavailable and in which neointimal hyperplasia is pronounced, such as in small-diameter (<6-mm) vessels typical of infrapopliteal interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)980-988
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume42
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2005

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Polytetrafluoroethylene
Sirolimus
Hyperplasia
Swine
Transplants
Adhesives
Polymers
Hematoxylin
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
Aspirin
Necrosis
Tunica Intima
Neointima
Polypropylenes
Iliac Artery

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this

Rapamycin-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts exhibit decreased anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. / Cagiannos, Catherine; Abul-Khoudoud, Omran R.; DeRijk, Waldemar; Shell IV, Daniel H.; Jennings, Lisa K.; Tolley, Elizabeth; Handorf, Charles R.; Fabian, Timothy; Geary, Randolph; Berceli, Scott; Goldman, Mitchell.

In: Journal of Vascular Surgery, Vol. 42, No. 5, 01.11.2005, p. 980-988.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cagiannos, C, Abul-Khoudoud, OR, DeRijk, W, Shell IV, DH, Jennings, LK, Tolley, E, Handorf, CR, Fabian, T, Geary, R, Berceli, S & Goldman, M 2005, 'Rapamycin-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts exhibit decreased anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model', Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 980-988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2005.06.018
Cagiannos, Catherine ; Abul-Khoudoud, Omran R. ; DeRijk, Waldemar ; Shell IV, Daniel H. ; Jennings, Lisa K. ; Tolley, Elizabeth ; Handorf, Charles R. ; Fabian, Timothy ; Geary, Randolph ; Berceli, Scott ; Goldman, Mitchell. / Rapamycin-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts exhibit decreased anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. In: Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2005 ; Vol. 42, No. 5. pp. 980-988.
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abstract = "Objective: We tested the hypothesis that rapamycin coated onto, and eluted from, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts would diminish neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Methods: Rapamycin (also called sirolimus) was coated onto the luminal surface of 6-mm-internal-diameter thin-walled ePTFE grafts by using an adhesive polymer that allows timed release of the drug. An adhesive polymer that allows timed release of rapamycin from ePTFE was developed with commercially available chemicals and applied on 6-mm ePTFE grafts. Graft integrity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and rapamycin levels were quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-two mongrel pigs were randomized into three groups: untreated ePTFE (n = 6), adhesive-only coated ePTFE (n = 6), or adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE (n = 10). End-to-side unilateral aortoiliac bypasses were performed by using 6-mm-internal-diameter ePTFE grafts and standardized anastomotic lengths. Unilateral end-to-side aortoiliac ePTFE grafts (6-mm internal diameter) were inserted by using polypropylene sutures, 6-0 proximally and 7-0 distally; all anastomoses were 12 mm long. All animals received aspirin (325 mg orally) daily. All animals were given oral aspirin (325 mg) daily beginning on the day before surgery. At 28 days, the animals were killed, and the grafts were explanted in continuity with the adjacent aortic cuff and the outflow iliac artery. Variables compared between groups included graft patency, distal anastomotic length and cross-sectional narrowing, and intimal thickness at the arterial-graft junction indexed to the adjacent graft thickness. Microscopic analysis was performed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains on paraffin sections. A pathologist blinded to experimental groups graded sections for collagen deposition, neointima formation, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, medial necrosis, and aneurysmal degeneration. Results: All animals survived until they were killed without clinical evidence of limb ischemia or graft infection. Preplanned t tests in the context of one-way analysis of variance showed no difference in outcome measures between the untreated ePTFE and adhesive-only coated ePTFE groups; therefore, they were combined in further comparisons with the adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE group. The Rapamycine eluting expanded polytetrafluoroethylene group had longer anastomoses (85.6{\%} vs 60.6{\%} of the initial anastomotic length maintained; P < .0001) and less cross-sectional narrowing in the outflow graft (16.2{\%} vs 28.5{\%}; P = .0007) when compared with the other two groups by using two-tailed Student t tests. There was no evidence of medial necrosis or aneurysmal degeneration. All patent grafts had complete endothelialization on hematoxylin and eosin sections. Rapamycin was detectable and quantifiable in the arterial wall at 28 days after implantation. Conclusions: Rapamycin can be coated onto and eluted from ePTFE by using a nonionic polymer and a simple coating technique. At 4 weeks after implantation, the rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrate gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with non-drug-eluting ePTFE. Four weeks after implantation in a porcine model, rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrated gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with untreated and adhesive-only coated ePTFE grafts. Clinical Relevance: Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether patency will be improved. Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts may allow the use of prosthetic grafts in situations in which autologous vein is unavailable and in which neointimal hyperplasia is pronounced, such as in small-diameter (<6-mm) vessels typical of infrapopliteal interventions.",
author = "Catherine Cagiannos and Abul-Khoudoud, {Omran R.} and Waldemar DeRijk and {Shell IV}, {Daniel H.} and Jennings, {Lisa K.} and Elizabeth Tolley and Handorf, {Charles R.} and Timothy Fabian and Randolph Geary and Scott Berceli and Mitchell Goldman",
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T1 - Rapamycin-coated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafts exhibit decreased anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model

AU - Cagiannos, Catherine

AU - Abul-Khoudoud, Omran R.

AU - DeRijk, Waldemar

AU - Shell IV, Daniel H.

AU - Jennings, Lisa K.

AU - Tolley, Elizabeth

AU - Handorf, Charles R.

AU - Fabian, Timothy

AU - Geary, Randolph

AU - Berceli, Scott

AU - Goldman, Mitchell

PY - 2005/11/1

Y1 - 2005/11/1

N2 - Objective: We tested the hypothesis that rapamycin coated onto, and eluted from, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts would diminish neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Methods: Rapamycin (also called sirolimus) was coated onto the luminal surface of 6-mm-internal-diameter thin-walled ePTFE grafts by using an adhesive polymer that allows timed release of the drug. An adhesive polymer that allows timed release of rapamycin from ePTFE was developed with commercially available chemicals and applied on 6-mm ePTFE grafts. Graft integrity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and rapamycin levels were quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-two mongrel pigs were randomized into three groups: untreated ePTFE (n = 6), adhesive-only coated ePTFE (n = 6), or adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE (n = 10). End-to-side unilateral aortoiliac bypasses were performed by using 6-mm-internal-diameter ePTFE grafts and standardized anastomotic lengths. Unilateral end-to-side aortoiliac ePTFE grafts (6-mm internal diameter) were inserted by using polypropylene sutures, 6-0 proximally and 7-0 distally; all anastomoses were 12 mm long. All animals received aspirin (325 mg orally) daily. All animals were given oral aspirin (325 mg) daily beginning on the day before surgery. At 28 days, the animals were killed, and the grafts were explanted in continuity with the adjacent aortic cuff and the outflow iliac artery. Variables compared between groups included graft patency, distal anastomotic length and cross-sectional narrowing, and intimal thickness at the arterial-graft junction indexed to the adjacent graft thickness. Microscopic analysis was performed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains on paraffin sections. A pathologist blinded to experimental groups graded sections for collagen deposition, neointima formation, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, medial necrosis, and aneurysmal degeneration. Results: All animals survived until they were killed without clinical evidence of limb ischemia or graft infection. Preplanned t tests in the context of one-way analysis of variance showed no difference in outcome measures between the untreated ePTFE and adhesive-only coated ePTFE groups; therefore, they were combined in further comparisons with the adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE group. The Rapamycine eluting expanded polytetrafluoroethylene group had longer anastomoses (85.6% vs 60.6% of the initial anastomotic length maintained; P < .0001) and less cross-sectional narrowing in the outflow graft (16.2% vs 28.5%; P = .0007) when compared with the other two groups by using two-tailed Student t tests. There was no evidence of medial necrosis or aneurysmal degeneration. All patent grafts had complete endothelialization on hematoxylin and eosin sections. Rapamycin was detectable and quantifiable in the arterial wall at 28 days after implantation. Conclusions: Rapamycin can be coated onto and eluted from ePTFE by using a nonionic polymer and a simple coating technique. At 4 weeks after implantation, the rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrate gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with non-drug-eluting ePTFE. Four weeks after implantation in a porcine model, rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrated gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with untreated and adhesive-only coated ePTFE grafts. Clinical Relevance: Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether patency will be improved. Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts may allow the use of prosthetic grafts in situations in which autologous vein is unavailable and in which neointimal hyperplasia is pronounced, such as in small-diameter (<6-mm) vessels typical of infrapopliteal interventions.

AB - Objective: We tested the hypothesis that rapamycin coated onto, and eluted from, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts would diminish neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Methods: Rapamycin (also called sirolimus) was coated onto the luminal surface of 6-mm-internal-diameter thin-walled ePTFE grafts by using an adhesive polymer that allows timed release of the drug. An adhesive polymer that allows timed release of rapamycin from ePTFE was developed with commercially available chemicals and applied on 6-mm ePTFE grafts. Graft integrity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and rapamycin levels were quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-two mongrel pigs were randomized into three groups: untreated ePTFE (n = 6), adhesive-only coated ePTFE (n = 6), or adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE (n = 10). End-to-side unilateral aortoiliac bypasses were performed by using 6-mm-internal-diameter ePTFE grafts and standardized anastomotic lengths. Unilateral end-to-side aortoiliac ePTFE grafts (6-mm internal diameter) were inserted by using polypropylene sutures, 6-0 proximally and 7-0 distally; all anastomoses were 12 mm long. All animals received aspirin (325 mg orally) daily. All animals were given oral aspirin (325 mg) daily beginning on the day before surgery. At 28 days, the animals were killed, and the grafts were explanted in continuity with the adjacent aortic cuff and the outflow iliac artery. Variables compared between groups included graft patency, distal anastomotic length and cross-sectional narrowing, and intimal thickness at the arterial-graft junction indexed to the adjacent graft thickness. Microscopic analysis was performed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains on paraffin sections. A pathologist blinded to experimental groups graded sections for collagen deposition, neointima formation, inflammatory cellular infiltrates, medial necrosis, and aneurysmal degeneration. Results: All animals survived until they were killed without clinical evidence of limb ischemia or graft infection. Preplanned t tests in the context of one-way analysis of variance showed no difference in outcome measures between the untreated ePTFE and adhesive-only coated ePTFE groups; therefore, they were combined in further comparisons with the adhesive- and rapamycin-coated ePTFE group. The Rapamycine eluting expanded polytetrafluoroethylene group had longer anastomoses (85.6% vs 60.6% of the initial anastomotic length maintained; P < .0001) and less cross-sectional narrowing in the outflow graft (16.2% vs 28.5%; P = .0007) when compared with the other two groups by using two-tailed Student t tests. There was no evidence of medial necrosis or aneurysmal degeneration. All patent grafts had complete endothelialization on hematoxylin and eosin sections. Rapamycin was detectable and quantifiable in the arterial wall at 28 days after implantation. Conclusions: Rapamycin can be coated onto and eluted from ePTFE by using a nonionic polymer and a simple coating technique. At 4 weeks after implantation, the rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrate gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with non-drug-eluting ePTFE. Four weeks after implantation in a porcine model, rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts demonstrated gross, pathologic, and morphometric features of diminished neointimal hyperplasia when compared with untreated and adhesive-only coated ePTFE grafts. Clinical Relevance: Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether patency will be improved. Rapamycin-eluting ePTFE grafts may allow the use of prosthetic grafts in situations in which autologous vein is unavailable and in which neointimal hyperplasia is pronounced, such as in small-diameter (<6-mm) vessels typical of infrapopliteal interventions.

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