Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules

M. E. Stone, E. D. Pederson, M. E. Cohen, James Ragain, R. S. Karaway, R. A. Auxer, A. R. Saluta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. Methods: For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Results: Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy™ capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD™, Optaloy™ II, Megalloy™ and Valliant Snap Set™, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin™ regular set double-spill, Tytin FC™, Contour™, Sybraloy™ regular set, and Tytin™ regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy™ and Contour™ leached Hg at greater than the 0.2mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. Significance: This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-294
Number of pages6
JournalDental Materials
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2002

Fingerprint

Mercury amalgams
Mercury (metal)
Mercury
Leaching
Capsules
Silver
Toxicity
Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Hazardous materials spills
Recovery
silver mercury amalgam
Conservation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Stone, M. E., Pederson, E. D., Cohen, M. E., Ragain, J., Karaway, R. S., Auxer, R. A., & Saluta, A. R. (2002). Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules. Dental Materials, 18(4), 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(01)00036-7

Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules. / Stone, M. E.; Pederson, E. D.; Cohen, M. E.; Ragain, James; Karaway, R. S.; Auxer, R. A.; Saluta, A. R.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 18, No. 4, 01.06.2002, p. 289-294.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stone, ME, Pederson, ED, Cohen, ME, Ragain, J, Karaway, RS, Auxer, RA & Saluta, AR 2002, 'Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules', Dental Materials, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(01)00036-7
Stone, M. E. ; Pederson, E. D. ; Cohen, M. E. ; Ragain, James ; Karaway, R. S. ; Auxer, R. A. ; Saluta, A. R. / Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules. In: Dental Materials. 2002 ; Vol. 18, No. 4. pp. 289-294.
@article{6e1277c57f244fb8b096ce15da569086,
title = "Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules",
abstract = "Objective: The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. Methods: For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Results: Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy™ capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD™, Optaloy™ II, Megalloy™ and Valliant Snap Set™, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin™ regular set double-spill, Tytin FC™, Contour™, Sybraloy™ regular set, and Tytin™ regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy™ and Contour™ leached Hg at greater than the 0.2mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. Significance: This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.",
author = "Stone, {M. E.} and Pederson, {E. D.} and Cohen, {M. E.} and James Ragain and Karaway, {R. S.} and Auxer, {R. A.} and Saluta, {A. R.}",
year = "2002",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0109-5641(01)00036-7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "289--294",
journal = "Dental Materials",
issn = "0109-5641",
publisher = "Elsevier Science",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules

AU - Stone, M. E.

AU - Pederson, E. D.

AU - Cohen, M. E.

AU - Ragain, James

AU - Karaway, R. S.

AU - Auxer, R. A.

AU - Saluta, A. R.

PY - 2002/6/1

Y1 - 2002/6/1

N2 - Objective: The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. Methods: For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Results: Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy™ capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD™, Optaloy™ II, Megalloy™ and Valliant Snap Set™, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin™ regular set double-spill, Tytin FC™, Contour™, Sybraloy™ regular set, and Tytin™ regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy™ and Contour™ leached Hg at greater than the 0.2mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. Significance: This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

AB - Objective: The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. Methods: For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Results: Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy™ capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD™, Optaloy™ II, Megalloy™ and Valliant Snap Set™, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin™ regular set double-spill, Tytin FC™, Contour™, Sybraloy™ regular set, and Tytin™ regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy™ and Contour™ leached Hg at greater than the 0.2mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. Significance: This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036615994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036615994&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0109-5641(01)00036-7

DO - 10.1016/S0109-5641(01)00036-7

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 289

EP - 294

JO - Dental Materials

JF - Dental Materials

SN - 0109-5641

IS - 4

ER -