Role of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms in the pathogenesis of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome

Jianfeng Xiao, Satya R. Vemula, Yi Xue, Mohammad M. Khan, Francesca A. Carlisle, Adrian J. Waite, Derek J. Blake, Ioannis Dragatsis, Yu Zhao, Mark Ledoux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Loss-of-function mutations in SGCE, which encodes ε-sarcoglycan (ε-SG), cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (OMIM159900, DYT11). A “major” ε-SG protein derived from CCDS5637.1 (NM_003919.2) and a “brain-specific” protein, that includes sequence derived from alternative exon 11b (CCDS47642.1, NM_001099400.1), are reportedly localized in post- and pre-synaptic membrane fractions, respectively. Moreover, deficiency of the “brain-specific” isoform and other isoforms derived from exon 11b may be central to the pathogenesis of DYT11. However, no animal model supports this hypothesis. Gene-trapped ES cells (CMHD-GT_148G1-3, intron 9 of NM_011360) were used to generate a novel Sgce mouse model (C57BL/6J background) with markedly reduced expression of isoforms derived from exons 3' to exon 9 of NM_011360. Among those brain regions analyzed in adult (2 month-old) wild-type (WT) mice, cerebellum showed the highest relative expression of isoforms incorporating exon 11b. Homozygotes (SgceGt(148G1)Cmhd/Gt(148G1)Cmhd or SgceGt/Gt) and paternal heterozygotes (Sgcem+/pGt, m-maternal, p-paternal) showed 60 to 70% reductions in expression of total Sgce. Although expression of the major (NM_011360) and brain-specific (NM_001130189) isoforms was markedly reduced, expression of short isoforms was preserved and relatively small amounts of chimeric ε-SG/β-galactosidase fusion protein was produced by the Sgce gene-trap locus. Immunoaffinity purification followed by mass spectrometry assessments of Sgcem+/pGt mouse brain using pan- or brain-specific ε-SG antibodies revealed significant reductions of ε-SG and other interacting sarcoglycans. Genome-wide gene-expression data using RNA derived from adult Sgcem+/pGt mouse cerebellum showed that the top up-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cellular development, cell death and survival, while the top down-regulated genes were associated with protein synthesis, cellular development, and cell death and survival. In comparison to WT littermates, Sgcem+/pGt mice exhibited “tiptoe” gait and stimulus-induced appendicular posturing between Postnatal Days 14 to 16. Abnormalities noted in older Sgcem+/pGt mice included reduced body weight, altered gait dynamics, and reduced open-field activity. Overt spontaneous or stimulus-sensitive myoclonus was not apparent on the C57BL/6J background or mixed C57BL/6J-BALB/c and C57BL/6J-129S2 backgrounds. Our data confirm that mouse Sgce is a maternally imprinted gene and suggests that short Sgce isoforms may compensate, in part, for deficiency of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-65
Number of pages14
JournalNeurobiology of Disease
Volume98
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

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Protein Isoforms
Brain
Exons
Sarcoglycans
Genes
Gait
Cerebellum
Cell Survival
Proteins
Cell Death
Galactosidases
Synaptic Membranes
Myoclonus
Myoclonic dystonia
Homozygote
Heterozygote
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Introns
Mass Spectrometry
Cell Cycle

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology

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Role of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms in the pathogenesis of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome. / Xiao, Jianfeng; Vemula, Satya R.; Xue, Yi; Khan, Mohammad M.; Carlisle, Francesca A.; Waite, Adrian J.; Blake, Derek J.; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Zhao, Yu; Ledoux, Mark.

In: Neurobiology of Disease, Vol. 98, 01.02.2017, p. 52-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Xiao, Jianfeng ; Vemula, Satya R. ; Xue, Yi ; Khan, Mohammad M. ; Carlisle, Francesca A. ; Waite, Adrian J. ; Blake, Derek J. ; Dragatsis, Ioannis ; Zhao, Yu ; Ledoux, Mark. / Role of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms in the pathogenesis of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome. In: Neurobiology of Disease. 2017 ; Vol. 98. pp. 52-65.
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abstract = "Loss-of-function mutations in SGCE, which encodes ε-sarcoglycan (ε-SG), cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (OMIM159900, DYT11). A “major” ε-SG protein derived from CCDS5637.1 (NM_003919.2) and a “brain-specific” protein, that includes sequence derived from alternative exon 11b (CCDS47642.1, NM_001099400.1), are reportedly localized in post- and pre-synaptic membrane fractions, respectively. Moreover, deficiency of the “brain-specific” isoform and other isoforms derived from exon 11b may be central to the pathogenesis of DYT11. However, no animal model supports this hypothesis. Gene-trapped ES cells (CMHD-GT_148G1-3, intron 9 of NM_011360) were used to generate a novel Sgce mouse model (C57BL/6J background) with markedly reduced expression of isoforms derived from exons 3' to exon 9 of NM_011360. Among those brain regions analyzed in adult (2 month-old) wild-type (WT) mice, cerebellum showed the highest relative expression of isoforms incorporating exon 11b. Homozygotes (SgceGt(148G1)Cmhd/Gt(148G1)Cmhd or SgceGt/Gt) and paternal heterozygotes (Sgcem+/pGt, m-maternal, p-paternal) showed 60 to 70{\%} reductions in expression of total Sgce. Although expression of the major (NM_011360) and brain-specific (NM_001130189) isoforms was markedly reduced, expression of short isoforms was preserved and relatively small amounts of chimeric ε-SG/β-galactosidase fusion protein was produced by the Sgce gene-trap locus. Immunoaffinity purification followed by mass spectrometry assessments of Sgcem+/pGt mouse brain using pan- or brain-specific ε-SG antibodies revealed significant reductions of ε-SG and other interacting sarcoglycans. Genome-wide gene-expression data using RNA derived from adult Sgcem+/pGt mouse cerebellum showed that the top up-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cellular development, cell death and survival, while the top down-regulated genes were associated with protein synthesis, cellular development, and cell death and survival. In comparison to WT littermates, Sgcem+/pGt mice exhibited “tiptoe” gait and stimulus-induced appendicular posturing between Postnatal Days 14 to 16. Abnormalities noted in older Sgcem+/pGt mice included reduced body weight, altered gait dynamics, and reduced open-field activity. Overt spontaneous or stimulus-sensitive myoclonus was not apparent on the C57BL/6J background or mixed C57BL/6J-BALB/c and C57BL/6J-129S2 backgrounds. Our data confirm that mouse Sgce is a maternally imprinted gene and suggests that short Sgce isoforms may compensate, in part, for deficiency of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms.",
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T1 - Role of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms in the pathogenesis of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome

AU - Xiao, Jianfeng

AU - Vemula, Satya R.

AU - Xue, Yi

AU - Khan, Mohammad M.

AU - Carlisle, Francesca A.

AU - Waite, Adrian J.

AU - Blake, Derek J.

AU - Dragatsis, Ioannis

AU - Zhao, Yu

AU - Ledoux, Mark

PY - 2017/2/1

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N2 - Loss-of-function mutations in SGCE, which encodes ε-sarcoglycan (ε-SG), cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (OMIM159900, DYT11). A “major” ε-SG protein derived from CCDS5637.1 (NM_003919.2) and a “brain-specific” protein, that includes sequence derived from alternative exon 11b (CCDS47642.1, NM_001099400.1), are reportedly localized in post- and pre-synaptic membrane fractions, respectively. Moreover, deficiency of the “brain-specific” isoform and other isoforms derived from exon 11b may be central to the pathogenesis of DYT11. However, no animal model supports this hypothesis. Gene-trapped ES cells (CMHD-GT_148G1-3, intron 9 of NM_011360) were used to generate a novel Sgce mouse model (C57BL/6J background) with markedly reduced expression of isoforms derived from exons 3' to exon 9 of NM_011360. Among those brain regions analyzed in adult (2 month-old) wild-type (WT) mice, cerebellum showed the highest relative expression of isoforms incorporating exon 11b. Homozygotes (SgceGt(148G1)Cmhd/Gt(148G1)Cmhd or SgceGt/Gt) and paternal heterozygotes (Sgcem+/pGt, m-maternal, p-paternal) showed 60 to 70% reductions in expression of total Sgce. Although expression of the major (NM_011360) and brain-specific (NM_001130189) isoforms was markedly reduced, expression of short isoforms was preserved and relatively small amounts of chimeric ε-SG/β-galactosidase fusion protein was produced by the Sgce gene-trap locus. Immunoaffinity purification followed by mass spectrometry assessments of Sgcem+/pGt mouse brain using pan- or brain-specific ε-SG antibodies revealed significant reductions of ε-SG and other interacting sarcoglycans. Genome-wide gene-expression data using RNA derived from adult Sgcem+/pGt mouse cerebellum showed that the top up-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cellular development, cell death and survival, while the top down-regulated genes were associated with protein synthesis, cellular development, and cell death and survival. In comparison to WT littermates, Sgcem+/pGt mice exhibited “tiptoe” gait and stimulus-induced appendicular posturing between Postnatal Days 14 to 16. Abnormalities noted in older Sgcem+/pGt mice included reduced body weight, altered gait dynamics, and reduced open-field activity. Overt spontaneous or stimulus-sensitive myoclonus was not apparent on the C57BL/6J background or mixed C57BL/6J-BALB/c and C57BL/6J-129S2 backgrounds. Our data confirm that mouse Sgce is a maternally imprinted gene and suggests that short Sgce isoforms may compensate, in part, for deficiency of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms.

AB - Loss-of-function mutations in SGCE, which encodes ε-sarcoglycan (ε-SG), cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (OMIM159900, DYT11). A “major” ε-SG protein derived from CCDS5637.1 (NM_003919.2) and a “brain-specific” protein, that includes sequence derived from alternative exon 11b (CCDS47642.1, NM_001099400.1), are reportedly localized in post- and pre-synaptic membrane fractions, respectively. Moreover, deficiency of the “brain-specific” isoform and other isoforms derived from exon 11b may be central to the pathogenesis of DYT11. However, no animal model supports this hypothesis. Gene-trapped ES cells (CMHD-GT_148G1-3, intron 9 of NM_011360) were used to generate a novel Sgce mouse model (C57BL/6J background) with markedly reduced expression of isoforms derived from exons 3' to exon 9 of NM_011360. Among those brain regions analyzed in adult (2 month-old) wild-type (WT) mice, cerebellum showed the highest relative expression of isoforms incorporating exon 11b. Homozygotes (SgceGt(148G1)Cmhd/Gt(148G1)Cmhd or SgceGt/Gt) and paternal heterozygotes (Sgcem+/pGt, m-maternal, p-paternal) showed 60 to 70% reductions in expression of total Sgce. Although expression of the major (NM_011360) and brain-specific (NM_001130189) isoforms was markedly reduced, expression of short isoforms was preserved and relatively small amounts of chimeric ε-SG/β-galactosidase fusion protein was produced by the Sgce gene-trap locus. Immunoaffinity purification followed by mass spectrometry assessments of Sgcem+/pGt mouse brain using pan- or brain-specific ε-SG antibodies revealed significant reductions of ε-SG and other interacting sarcoglycans. Genome-wide gene-expression data using RNA derived from adult Sgcem+/pGt mouse cerebellum showed that the top up-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cellular development, cell death and survival, while the top down-regulated genes were associated with protein synthesis, cellular development, and cell death and survival. In comparison to WT littermates, Sgcem+/pGt mice exhibited “tiptoe” gait and stimulus-induced appendicular posturing between Postnatal Days 14 to 16. Abnormalities noted in older Sgcem+/pGt mice included reduced body weight, altered gait dynamics, and reduced open-field activity. Overt spontaneous or stimulus-sensitive myoclonus was not apparent on the C57BL/6J background or mixed C57BL/6J-BALB/c and C57BL/6J-129S2 backgrounds. Our data confirm that mouse Sgce is a maternally imprinted gene and suggests that short Sgce isoforms may compensate, in part, for deficiency of major and brain-specific Sgce isoforms.

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