Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions

Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David T.W. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a “mirror of the body,” can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term “Salivaomics” aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various “omics” constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. In the last few years, researchers have developed new technologies and validated a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva a clinical reality. However, a great need still exists for convenient and accurate point-of-care devices that can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. In addition, there is an urgent need to decipher the scientific rationale and mechanisms that convey systemic diseases to saliva. Another promising technology called liquid biopsy enables detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and fragments of tumor DNA in saliva, thus enabling non-invasive early detection of various cancers. The newly developed technology—electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) provides near perfect detection of actionable mutations in lung cancer patients. These recent advances widened the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system, and thus point towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized individual medicine applications including clinical decisions and post-treatment outcome predictions. Impact statement The purpose of this mini-review is to make an update about the present and future applications of saliva as a diagnostic biofluid in many fields of science such as dentistry, medicine and pharmacotherapy. Using saliva as a fluid for diagnostic purposes would be a huge breakthrough for both patients and healthcare providers since saliva collection is easy, non-invasive and inexpensive. We will go through the current main diagnostic applications of saliva, and provide a highlight on the emerging, newly developing technologies and tools for cancer screening, detection and monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-472
Number of pages14
JournalExperimental Biology and Medicine
Volume242
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

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Saliva
Medicine
Drug therapy
Dentistry
Tumors
Biopsy
Monitoring
Biomarkers
Proteome
MicroRNAs
Screening
Mirrors
Cells
Technology
Early Detection of Cancer
Fluids
Direction compound
DNA
Point-of-Care Systems
Liquids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Kaczor-Urbanowicz, K. E., Martin Carreras-Presas, C., Aro, K., Tu, M., Garcia-Godoy, F., & Wong, D. T. W. (2017). Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 242(5), 459-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370216681550

Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions. / Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Aro, Katri; Tu, Michael; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Wong, David T.W.

In: Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 242, No. 5, 01.03.2017, p. 459-472.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Kaczor-Urbanowicz, KE, Martin Carreras-Presas, C, Aro, K, Tu, M, Garcia-Godoy, F & Wong, DTW 2017, 'Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions', Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 242, no. 5, pp. 459-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370216681550
Kaczor-Urbanowicz KE, Martin Carreras-Presas C, Aro K, Tu M, Garcia-Godoy F, Wong DTW. Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2017 Mar 1;242(5):459-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370216681550
Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Karolina Elżbieta ; Martin Carreras-Presas, Carmen ; Aro, Katri ; Tu, Michael ; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin ; Wong, David T.W. / Saliva diagnostics – Current views and directions. In: Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 242, No. 5. pp. 459-472.
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