Sleep and GABA levels in the oral part of rat pontine reticular formation are decreased by local and systemic administration of morphine

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Abstract

Morphine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hypothesis that μ-opioid receptors modulate PnO GABA levels. Validation of the high performance liquid chromatographic technique used to quantify GABA was obtained by dialyzing the PnO (n=4 rats) with the GABA reuptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (500 μM). Nipecotic acid caused a 185±20% increase in PnO GABA levels, confirming chromatographic detection of GABA and demonstrating the existence of functional GABA transporters in rat PnO. Morphine caused a concentration-dependent decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=25 rats). Coadministration of morphine (100 μM) with naloxone (1 μM), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked the morphine-induced decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=5 rats). These results show for the first time that μ-opioid receptors in rat PnO modulate GABA levels. A second group of rats (n=6) was used to test the hypothesis that systemically administered morphine also decreases PnO GABA levels. I.v. morphine caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease (19%) in PnO GABA levels relative to control i.v. infusions of saline. Finally, microinjections followed by 2 h recordings of electroencephalogram and electromyogram tested the hypothesis that PnO morphine administration disrupts sleep (n=8 rats). Morphine significantly (P<0.05) increased the percent of time spent in wakefulness (65%) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the percent of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (-53%) and non-REM sleep (-69%). The neurochemical and behavioral data suggest that morphine may disrupt sleep, at least in part, by decreasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-386
Number of pages12
JournalNeuroscience
Volume144
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 5 2007

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gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Morphine
Sleep
Wakefulness
Opioid Receptors
Pontine Tegmentum
GABA Uptake Inhibitors
GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Narcotic Antagonists
REM Sleep
Microdialysis
Microinjections
Electromyography
Eye Movements
Naloxone
Arousal
Sprague Dawley Rats
Electroencephalography
Pain
Brain

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{4b97f44e197a4c1982c857c614d55ba2,
title = "Sleep and GABA levels in the oral part of rat pontine reticular formation are decreased by local and systemic administration of morphine",
abstract = "Morphine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hypothesis that μ-opioid receptors modulate PnO GABA levels. Validation of the high performance liquid chromatographic technique used to quantify GABA was obtained by dialyzing the PnO (n=4 rats) with the GABA reuptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (500 μM). Nipecotic acid caused a 185±20{\%} increase in PnO GABA levels, confirming chromatographic detection of GABA and demonstrating the existence of functional GABA transporters in rat PnO. Morphine caused a concentration-dependent decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=25 rats). Coadministration of morphine (100 μM) with naloxone (1 μM), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked the morphine-induced decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=5 rats). These results show for the first time that μ-opioid receptors in rat PnO modulate GABA levels. A second group of rats (n=6) was used to test the hypothesis that systemically administered morphine also decreases PnO GABA levels. I.v. morphine caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease (19{\%}) in PnO GABA levels relative to control i.v. infusions of saline. Finally, microinjections followed by 2 h recordings of electroencephalogram and electromyogram tested the hypothesis that PnO morphine administration disrupts sleep (n=8 rats). Morphine significantly (P<0.05) increased the percent of time spent in wakefulness (65{\%}) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the percent of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (-53{\%}) and non-REM sleep (-69{\%}). The neurochemical and behavioral data suggest that morphine may disrupt sleep, at least in part, by decreasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO.",
author = "Watson, {C. J.} and Ralph Lydic and Helen Baghdoyan",
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T1 - Sleep and GABA levels in the oral part of rat pontine reticular formation are decreased by local and systemic administration of morphine

AU - Watson, C. J.

AU - Lydic, Ralph

AU - Baghdoyan, Helen

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N2 - Morphine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hypothesis that μ-opioid receptors modulate PnO GABA levels. Validation of the high performance liquid chromatographic technique used to quantify GABA was obtained by dialyzing the PnO (n=4 rats) with the GABA reuptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (500 μM). Nipecotic acid caused a 185±20% increase in PnO GABA levels, confirming chromatographic detection of GABA and demonstrating the existence of functional GABA transporters in rat PnO. Morphine caused a concentration-dependent decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=25 rats). Coadministration of morphine (100 μM) with naloxone (1 μM), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked the morphine-induced decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=5 rats). These results show for the first time that μ-opioid receptors in rat PnO modulate GABA levels. A second group of rats (n=6) was used to test the hypothesis that systemically administered morphine also decreases PnO GABA levels. I.v. morphine caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease (19%) in PnO GABA levels relative to control i.v. infusions of saline. Finally, microinjections followed by 2 h recordings of electroencephalogram and electromyogram tested the hypothesis that PnO morphine administration disrupts sleep (n=8 rats). Morphine significantly (P<0.05) increased the percent of time spent in wakefulness (65%) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the percent of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (-53%) and non-REM sleep (-69%). The neurochemical and behavioral data suggest that morphine may disrupt sleep, at least in part, by decreasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO.

AB - Morphine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hypothesis that μ-opioid receptors modulate PnO GABA levels. Validation of the high performance liquid chromatographic technique used to quantify GABA was obtained by dialyzing the PnO (n=4 rats) with the GABA reuptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (500 μM). Nipecotic acid caused a 185±20% increase in PnO GABA levels, confirming chromatographic detection of GABA and demonstrating the existence of functional GABA transporters in rat PnO. Morphine caused a concentration-dependent decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=25 rats). Coadministration of morphine (100 μM) with naloxone (1 μM), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked the morphine-induced decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=5 rats). These results show for the first time that μ-opioid receptors in rat PnO modulate GABA levels. A second group of rats (n=6) was used to test the hypothesis that systemically administered morphine also decreases PnO GABA levels. I.v. morphine caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease (19%) in PnO GABA levels relative to control i.v. infusions of saline. Finally, microinjections followed by 2 h recordings of electroencephalogram and electromyogram tested the hypothesis that PnO morphine administration disrupts sleep (n=8 rats). Morphine significantly (P<0.05) increased the percent of time spent in wakefulness (65%) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the percent of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (-53%) and non-REM sleep (-69%). The neurochemical and behavioral data suggest that morphine may disrupt sleep, at least in part, by decreasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO.

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