Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration

Feng Chen, Li Li, Fang Xu, Yan Sun, Feifei Du, Xutao Ma, Chenchun Zhong, Xiuxue Li, Fengqing Wang, Nating Zhang, Chuan Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background and Purpose Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Experimental Approach Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Key Results Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Conclusion and Implications Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)440-457
Number of pages18
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Volume170
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013

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Ginkgo biloba
Flavonols
Terpenes
Lactones
Pharmacokinetics
Injections
Enterohepatic Circulation
Microdialysis
Glycosides
Liquid Chromatography
Intravenous Administration
Biological Availability
Oral Administration
Mass Spectrometry
Cardiovascular Diseases
Brain
Therapeutics
shuxuening

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology

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Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration. / Chen, Feng; Li, Li; Xu, Fang; Sun, Yan; Du, Feifei; Ma, Xutao; Zhong, Chenchun; Li, Xiuxue; Wang, Fengqing; Zhang, Nating; Li, Chuan.

In: British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 170, No. 2, 01.09.2013, p. 440-457.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Feng ; Li, Li ; Xu, Fang ; Sun, Yan ; Du, Feifei ; Ma, Xutao ; Zhong, Chenchun ; Li, Xiuxue ; Wang, Fengqing ; Zhang, Nating ; Li, Chuan. / Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration. In: British Journal of Pharmacology. 2013 ; Vol. 170, No. 2. pp. 440-457.
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abstract = "Background and Purpose Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Experimental Approach Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Key Results Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Conclusion and Implications Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects.",
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T1 - Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration

AU - Chen, Feng

AU - Li, Li

AU - Xu, Fang

AU - Sun, Yan

AU - Du, Feifei

AU - Ma, Xutao

AU - Zhong, Chenchun

AU - Li, Xiuxue

AU - Wang, Fengqing

AU - Zhang, Nating

AU - Li, Chuan

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N2 - Background and Purpose Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Experimental Approach Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Key Results Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Conclusion and Implications Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects.

AB - Background and Purpose Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Experimental Approach Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Key Results Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Conclusion and Implications Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects.

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