T-loop force system with and without vertical step using finite element analysis

Paiboon Techalertpaisarn, Antheunis Versluis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the effect of vertical steps on a T-loop force system at three interbracket distances (IBDs) and their association with V-bends. Materials and Methods: Loop response during simulated loop pulling was determined for 18 T-loop configurations (6-, 9-, and 12-mm IBD with a 2.5-mm canine bracket (CB) end and 0- (plain), 0.5-, or 1-mm vertical step). Loop length-by-height was 8 3 8 or 10 3 10 mm. Horizontal load/ deflection, vertical force (Fy), and moment-to-force (M/F) ratios at loop ends were determined for 100-g and 200-g activation by finite element analysis. Results: Plain, 12-mm IBD T-loops showed similar force and moment responses as off-centered V-bends (greater moment close to V-bend) without change in moment direction at the premolar bracket (PB) end; plain, 6-mm IBD T-loop responses were similar to those of centered V-bends (equal, opposing moments at each end). Adding vertical steps to the T-loops raised the M/F ratio at the PB ends enough to produce root movement, while lowering the M/F ratios at the CB ends. Increasing the step bends for shorter IBDs increased Fys and caused rapid changes in M/F ratios. Unlike plain T-loops, increasing activation in stepped T-loops caused substantial variations in M/F ratios and in amount and direction of Fys. Conclusions: Step bends can dramatically change the force system. Stepped T-loops display combined effects of V-bends and step bends.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-379
Number of pages8
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Volume86
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

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Finite Element Analysis
Bicuspid
Canidae
Direction compound

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthodontics

Cite this

T-loop force system with and without vertical step using finite element analysis. / Techalertpaisarn, Paiboon; Versluis, Antheunis.

In: Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 86, No. 3, 01.05.2016, p. 372-379.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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