The cytochrome P450 genesis locus

The origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s

David Nelson, Jared V. Goldstone, John J. Stegeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume368
Issue number1612
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 19 2013

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Cytochromes
cytochromes
cytochrome P-450
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Animals
Genes
loci
animals
genes
Cnidaria
Chordata
Multigene Family
multigene family
Placozoa
ancestry
Genome
Embryophyta
Gene Conversion
gene conversion
Acropora

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

The cytochrome P450 genesis locus : The origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s. / Nelson, David; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 368, No. 1612, 19.02.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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