The distribution of cholecystokinin-8 in the central nervous system of turtles

An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

Anton Reiner, Margery C. Beinfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Immunohistochemical techniques, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to: (1) determine the regional distribution and amounts of cholecystokinin-8 (CCKS)-like immunoreactivity in the turtle central nervous system, and (2) chemically characterize the CCK8-like material present in the turtle central nervous system. High levels of CCK8-like immunoreactivity were found in the turtle central nervous system, with the highest levels being present in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. Moderate levels of the CCK8-like material were found in all other regions of the turtle nervous system except the cerebellum, the olfactory bulbs and the dorsal ventricular ridge of the telencephalon, which contained low levels. The bulk (87%) of the CCK8-like material in turtle central nervous system co-eluted with CCK8-sulfate in gradient elution HPLC. The distribution of CCK8-like immunoreactivity (CCK8LI) observed using immunohistochemistry was consistent with the results of the RIA studies. Numerous CCK8LI-containing neurons and fibers were observed in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. Neurons and fibers containing CCK8 were, however, more sparsely distributed outside the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemical data provided evidence for the existence of two major CCK8-containing pathways in turtles that have been previously described in mammals: a pathway from the supraoptic and paraventricular magnocellular nuclei to the external zone of the median eminence and neurohypophysis and a pathway from dorsal root ganglia to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Overall, the present results, in conjunction with several previous studies, indicate that CCK8 has had a relatively stable evolutionary history as a CNS neuropeptide among land vertebrates. The molecular structure of CCK8 appears to have been largely (if not entirely) conserved, as has its concentration in many brain regions. A noteworthy exception to such conservatism in the localization of CCK8 is that the concentration of CCK8 in the telencephalon, particularly in the telencephalic cortex, is much lower in turtles than in mammals. The present results therefore suggest that CCK8 may not have become a prominent peptide in the telencephalic cortex (or its anatomical equivalents) until the evolution of neocortex in the mammalian lineage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-181
Number of pages15
JournalBrain Research Bulletin
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

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Turtles
Central Nervous System
Telencephalon
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Hypothalamus
Radioimmunoassay
Mammals
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Neurons
Median Eminence
Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
Olfactory Bulb
Neocortex
Spinal Ganglia
Politics
cholecystokinin 8
Molecular Structure
Neuropeptides
Cerebellum
Nervous System

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

The distribution of cholecystokinin-8 in the central nervous system of turtles : An immunohistochemical and biochemical study. / Reiner, Anton; Beinfeld, Margery C.

In: Brain Research Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 2, 01.01.1985, p. 167-181.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Immunohistochemical techniques, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to: (1) determine the regional distribution and amounts of cholecystokinin-8 (CCKS)-like immunoreactivity in the turtle central nervous system, and (2) chemically characterize the CCK8-like material present in the turtle central nervous system. High levels of CCK8-like immunoreactivity were found in the turtle central nervous system, with the highest levels being present in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. Moderate levels of the CCK8-like material were found in all other regions of the turtle nervous system except the cerebellum, the olfactory bulbs and the dorsal ventricular ridge of the telencephalon, which contained low levels. The bulk (87{\%}) of the CCK8-like material in turtle central nervous system co-eluted with CCK8-sulfate in gradient elution HPLC. The distribution of CCK8-like immunoreactivity (CCK8LI) observed using immunohistochemistry was consistent with the results of the RIA studies. Numerous CCK8LI-containing neurons and fibers were observed in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. Neurons and fibers containing CCK8 were, however, more sparsely distributed outside the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemical data provided evidence for the existence of two major CCK8-containing pathways in turtles that have been previously described in mammals: a pathway from the supraoptic and paraventricular magnocellular nuclei to the external zone of the median eminence and neurohypophysis and a pathway from dorsal root ganglia to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Overall, the present results, in conjunction with several previous studies, indicate that CCK8 has had a relatively stable evolutionary history as a CNS neuropeptide among land vertebrates. The molecular structure of CCK8 appears to have been largely (if not entirely) conserved, as has its concentration in many brain regions. A noteworthy exception to such conservatism in the localization of CCK8 is that the concentration of CCK8 in the telencephalon, particularly in the telencephalic cortex, is much lower in turtles than in mammals. The present results therefore suggest that CCK8 may not have become a prominent peptide in the telencephalic cortex (or its anatomical equivalents) until the evolution of neocortex in the mammalian lineage.",
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