The distribution of GABA‐containing perikarya, fibers, and terminals in the forebrain and midbrain of pigeons, with particular reference to the basal ganglia and its projection targets

C. Leo Veenman, Anton Reiner

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167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distributions of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pigeon forebrain and midbrain to determine the organization of GABAergic systems in these brain areas in birds. In the basal ganglia, numerous medium‐sized neurons throughout the striatum were labeled for GABA, while pallidal neurons, as well as a small population of large, aspiny striatal neurons, labeled for GAD and GABA. GAD+ and GABA+ fibers and terminals were abundant throughout the basal ganglia, and GABAergic fibers were found in all extratelencephalic targets of the basal ganglia. Most of these targets also contained numerous GABAergic neurons. In pallial regions, approximately 10‐12% of the neurons were GABAergic. The outer rind of the pallium was more intensely labeled for GABAergic fibers than the core. The olfactory tubercle region, the ventral pallidum, and the hypothalamus were extremely densely labeled for GABAergic fibers, while GABAergic neurons were unevenly distributed in the hypothalamus. GABAergic neurons and fibers were abundant in the dorsalmost part of thalamus and the dorsal geniculate region, while GABAergic neurons and fibers were sparse (or lightly labeled) in the thalamic nuclei rotundus, triangularis, and ovoidalis. Further, GABAergic neurons were abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the magnocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercollicular region, the central gray, and the reticular formation. GABAergic fibers were particularly abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the parvocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercol‐licular region, the central gray, and the interpeduncular nucleus. These results suggest that GABA plays a role as a neurotransmitter in nearly all fore‐ and midbrain regions of birds, and in many instances the observed distributions of GABAergic neurons and fibers closely resemble the patterns seen in mammals, as well as in other vertebrates. © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-250
Number of pages42
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Volume339
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994

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GABAergic Neurons
Columbidae
Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Basal Ganglia
Aminobutyrates
Glutamate Decarboxylase
Inferior Colliculi
Neurons
Hypothalamus
Birds
Corpus Striatum
Thalamic Nuclei
Reticular Formation
Thalamus
Neurotransmitter Agents
Vertebrates
Mammals
Brain
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{77a2b251d8a1400a98623091793dc771,
title = "The distribution of GABA‐containing perikarya, fibers, and terminals in the forebrain and midbrain of pigeons, with particular reference to the basal ganglia and its projection targets",
abstract = "Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distributions of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pigeon forebrain and midbrain to determine the organization of GABAergic systems in these brain areas in birds. In the basal ganglia, numerous medium‐sized neurons throughout the striatum were labeled for GABA, while pallidal neurons, as well as a small population of large, aspiny striatal neurons, labeled for GAD and GABA. GAD+ and GABA+ fibers and terminals were abundant throughout the basal ganglia, and GABAergic fibers were found in all extratelencephalic targets of the basal ganglia. Most of these targets also contained numerous GABAergic neurons. In pallial regions, approximately 10‐12{\%} of the neurons were GABAergic. The outer rind of the pallium was more intensely labeled for GABAergic fibers than the core. The olfactory tubercle region, the ventral pallidum, and the hypothalamus were extremely densely labeled for GABAergic fibers, while GABAergic neurons were unevenly distributed in the hypothalamus. GABAergic neurons and fibers were abundant in the dorsalmost part of thalamus and the dorsal geniculate region, while GABAergic neurons and fibers were sparse (or lightly labeled) in the thalamic nuclei rotundus, triangularis, and ovoidalis. Further, GABAergic neurons were abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the magnocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercollicular region, the central gray, and the reticular formation. GABAergic fibers were particularly abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the parvocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercol‐licular region, the central gray, and the interpeduncular nucleus. These results suggest that GABA plays a role as a neurotransmitter in nearly all fore‐ and midbrain regions of birds, and in many instances the observed distributions of GABAergic neurons and fibers closely resemble the patterns seen in mammals, as well as in other vertebrates. {\circledC} 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.",
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N2 - Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distributions of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pigeon forebrain and midbrain to determine the organization of GABAergic systems in these brain areas in birds. In the basal ganglia, numerous medium‐sized neurons throughout the striatum were labeled for GABA, while pallidal neurons, as well as a small population of large, aspiny striatal neurons, labeled for GAD and GABA. GAD+ and GABA+ fibers and terminals were abundant throughout the basal ganglia, and GABAergic fibers were found in all extratelencephalic targets of the basal ganglia. Most of these targets also contained numerous GABAergic neurons. In pallial regions, approximately 10‐12% of the neurons were GABAergic. The outer rind of the pallium was more intensely labeled for GABAergic fibers than the core. The olfactory tubercle region, the ventral pallidum, and the hypothalamus were extremely densely labeled for GABAergic fibers, while GABAergic neurons were unevenly distributed in the hypothalamus. GABAergic neurons and fibers were abundant in the dorsalmost part of thalamus and the dorsal geniculate region, while GABAergic neurons and fibers were sparse (or lightly labeled) in the thalamic nuclei rotundus, triangularis, and ovoidalis. Further, GABAergic neurons were abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the magnocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercollicular region, the central gray, and the reticular formation. GABAergic fibers were particularly abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the parvocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercol‐licular region, the central gray, and the interpeduncular nucleus. These results suggest that GABA plays a role as a neurotransmitter in nearly all fore‐ and midbrain regions of birds, and in many instances the observed distributions of GABAergic neurons and fibers closely resemble the patterns seen in mammals, as well as in other vertebrates. © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

AB - Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distributions of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pigeon forebrain and midbrain to determine the organization of GABAergic systems in these brain areas in birds. In the basal ganglia, numerous medium‐sized neurons throughout the striatum were labeled for GABA, while pallidal neurons, as well as a small population of large, aspiny striatal neurons, labeled for GAD and GABA. GAD+ and GABA+ fibers and terminals were abundant throughout the basal ganglia, and GABAergic fibers were found in all extratelencephalic targets of the basal ganglia. Most of these targets also contained numerous GABAergic neurons. In pallial regions, approximately 10‐12% of the neurons were GABAergic. The outer rind of the pallium was more intensely labeled for GABAergic fibers than the core. The olfactory tubercle region, the ventral pallidum, and the hypothalamus were extremely densely labeled for GABAergic fibers, while GABAergic neurons were unevenly distributed in the hypothalamus. GABAergic neurons and fibers were abundant in the dorsalmost part of thalamus and the dorsal geniculate region, while GABAergic neurons and fibers were sparse (or lightly labeled) in the thalamic nuclei rotundus, triangularis, and ovoidalis. Further, GABAergic neurons were abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the magnocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercollicular region, the central gray, and the reticular formation. GABAergic fibers were particularly abundant in the superficial tectal layers, the parvocellular isthmic nucleus, the inferior colliculus, the intercol‐licular region, the central gray, and the interpeduncular nucleus. These results suggest that GABA plays a role as a neurotransmitter in nearly all fore‐ and midbrain regions of birds, and in many instances the observed distributions of GABAergic neurons and fibers closely resemble the patterns seen in mammals, as well as in other vertebrates. © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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