The effect of ethanol on oral cocaine pharmacokinetics reveals an unrecognized class of ethanol-mediated drug interactions

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Abstract

Ethanol decreases the clearance of cocaine by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester by carboxylesterases, and there is a large body of literature describing this interaction as it relates to the abuse of cocaine. In this study, we describe the effect of intravenous ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of cocaine after intravenous and oral administration in the dog. The intent is to determine the effect ethanol has on metabolic hydrolysis using cocaine metabolism as a surrogate marker of carboxylesterase activity. Five dogs were administered intravenous cocaine alone, intravenous cocaine after ethanol, oral cocaine alone, and oral cocaine after ethanol on separate study days. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cocaine had poor systemic bioavailability with an area under the plasma concentration-time curve that was approximately 4-fold higher after intravenous than after oral administration. The coadministration of ethanol and cocaine resulted in a 23% decrease in the clearance of intravenous cocaine and a 300% increase in the bioavailability of oral cocaine. Cocaine behaves as a high extraction drug, which undergoes first-pass metabolism in the intestines and liver that is profoundly inhibited by ethanol. We infer from these results that ethanol could inhibit the hydrolysis of other drug compounds subject to hydrolysis by carboxylesterases. Indeed, there are numerous commonly prescribed drugs with significant carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism such as enalapril, lovastatin, irinotecan, clopidogrel, prasugrel, methylphenidate, meperidine, and oseltamivir that may interact with ethanol. The clinical significance of the interaction of ethanol with specific drugs subject to carboxylesterase hydrolysis is not well recognized and has not been adequately studied. Copyright;

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-322
Number of pages6
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010

Fingerprint

Drug Interactions
Cocaine
Ethanol
Pharmacokinetics
Hydrolysis
Carboxylesterase
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases
irinotecan
clopidogrel
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Biological Availability
Oral Administration
Dogs
Oseltamivir
Lovastatin
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Meperidine
Methylphenidate
Enalapril
Intravenous Administration

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

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title = "The effect of ethanol on oral cocaine pharmacokinetics reveals an unrecognized class of ethanol-mediated drug interactions",
abstract = "Ethanol decreases the clearance of cocaine by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester by carboxylesterases, and there is a large body of literature describing this interaction as it relates to the abuse of cocaine. In this study, we describe the effect of intravenous ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of cocaine after intravenous and oral administration in the dog. The intent is to determine the effect ethanol has on metabolic hydrolysis using cocaine metabolism as a surrogate marker of carboxylesterase activity. Five dogs were administered intravenous cocaine alone, intravenous cocaine after ethanol, oral cocaine alone, and oral cocaine after ethanol on separate study days. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cocaine had poor systemic bioavailability with an area under the plasma concentration-time curve that was approximately 4-fold higher after intravenous than after oral administration. The coadministration of ethanol and cocaine resulted in a 23{\%} decrease in the clearance of intravenous cocaine and a 300{\%} increase in the bioavailability of oral cocaine. Cocaine behaves as a high extraction drug, which undergoes first-pass metabolism in the intestines and liver that is profoundly inhibited by ethanol. We infer from these results that ethanol could inhibit the hydrolysis of other drug compounds subject to hydrolysis by carboxylesterases. Indeed, there are numerous commonly prescribed drugs with significant carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism such as enalapril, lovastatin, irinotecan, clopidogrel, prasugrel, methylphenidate, meperidine, and oseltamivir that may interact with ethanol. The clinical significance of the interaction of ethanol with specific drugs subject to carboxylesterase hydrolysis is not well recognized and has not been adequately studied. Copyright;",
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T1 - The effect of ethanol on oral cocaine pharmacokinetics reveals an unrecognized class of ethanol-mediated drug interactions

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AU - Laizure, Steven

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N2 - Ethanol decreases the clearance of cocaine by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester by carboxylesterases, and there is a large body of literature describing this interaction as it relates to the abuse of cocaine. In this study, we describe the effect of intravenous ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of cocaine after intravenous and oral administration in the dog. The intent is to determine the effect ethanol has on metabolic hydrolysis using cocaine metabolism as a surrogate marker of carboxylesterase activity. Five dogs were administered intravenous cocaine alone, intravenous cocaine after ethanol, oral cocaine alone, and oral cocaine after ethanol on separate study days. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cocaine had poor systemic bioavailability with an area under the plasma concentration-time curve that was approximately 4-fold higher after intravenous than after oral administration. The coadministration of ethanol and cocaine resulted in a 23% decrease in the clearance of intravenous cocaine and a 300% increase in the bioavailability of oral cocaine. Cocaine behaves as a high extraction drug, which undergoes first-pass metabolism in the intestines and liver that is profoundly inhibited by ethanol. We infer from these results that ethanol could inhibit the hydrolysis of other drug compounds subject to hydrolysis by carboxylesterases. Indeed, there are numerous commonly prescribed drugs with significant carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism such as enalapril, lovastatin, irinotecan, clopidogrel, prasugrel, methylphenidate, meperidine, and oseltamivir that may interact with ethanol. The clinical significance of the interaction of ethanol with specific drugs subject to carboxylesterase hydrolysis is not well recognized and has not been adequately studied. Copyright;

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