The Murine Nucleolin Protein Is an Inducible DNA and ATP Binding Protein Which Is Readily Detected in Nuclear Extracts of Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Splenocytes

Gustavo Miranda-Carboni, Ilona Chokler, Renato J. Aguilera

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34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A 100-kDa DNA binding protein was found to be dramatically up-regulated upon the mitogenic stimulation of murine splenocytes with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The induced DNA binding protein was also found to exhibit moderate binding specificity for the immunoglobulin isotype switch DNA repeats. Furthermore, the induction of the 100-kDa protein by LPS was found to be mediated by both an increase in the protein's stability and an increase in the synthesis of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation experiments revealed that the 100-kDa DNA binding protein was one of the most heavily phosphorylated proteins in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid nuclear extracts. Although this in vitro phosphorylation initially appeared to be mediated by a potent nuclear kinase activity, it was later determined that a significant part of the detected labeling was due to the direct binding of ATP by the 100-kDa protein. Antibodies raised to the 100-kDa DNA binding protein were used to isolate cDNA clones from a lymphocyte cDNA λgt11 expression library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNAs were identical to the mouse nucleolin gene. The β-galactosidase fusion proteins (encoded by exons 3-14 of nucleolin) and a more severely truncated 45-kDa protein (encoded by exons 5-14 of nucleolin) were both found to bind strongly to DNA and ATP. Furthermore, the strength of DNA binding was found to be highly dependent on the overall dG content of the DNA probes. Our experiments also revealed that apart from binding ATP and G-rich DNA, nucleolin directly bound GTP, dATP, and dGTP, but not dCTP, dTTP, or dUTP. Computer analysis revealed that the putative ATP binding domains appear to fall within two of the phylogenetically conserved RNA binding domains of nucleolin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)294-308
Number of pages15
JournalExperimental Cell Research
Volume217
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995
Externally publishedYes

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DNA-Binding Proteins
Lipopolysaccharides
Adenosine Triphosphate
Proteins
Complementary DNA
DNA
Exons
Phosphorylation
Galactosidases
Immunoglobulin Isotypes
Protein Stability
DNA Probes
Guanosine Triphosphate
Sequence Analysis
nucleolin
Phosphotransferases
Clone Cells
Lymphocytes
Antibodies
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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abstract = "A 100-kDa DNA binding protein was found to be dramatically up-regulated upon the mitogenic stimulation of murine splenocytes with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The induced DNA binding protein was also found to exhibit moderate binding specificity for the immunoglobulin isotype switch DNA repeats. Furthermore, the induction of the 100-kDa protein by LPS was found to be mediated by both an increase in the protein's stability and an increase in the synthesis of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation experiments revealed that the 100-kDa DNA binding protein was one of the most heavily phosphorylated proteins in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid nuclear extracts. Although this in vitro phosphorylation initially appeared to be mediated by a potent nuclear kinase activity, it was later determined that a significant part of the detected labeling was due to the direct binding of ATP by the 100-kDa protein. Antibodies raised to the 100-kDa DNA binding protein were used to isolate cDNA clones from a lymphocyte cDNA λgt11 expression library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the cloned cDNAs were identical to the mouse nucleolin gene. The β-galactosidase fusion proteins (encoded by exons 3-14 of nucleolin) and a more severely truncated 45-kDa protein (encoded by exons 5-14 of nucleolin) were both found to bind strongly to DNA and ATP. Furthermore, the strength of DNA binding was found to be highly dependent on the overall dG content of the DNA probes. Our experiments also revealed that apart from binding ATP and G-rich DNA, nucleolin directly bound GTP, dATP, and dGTP, but not dCTP, dTTP, or dUTP. Computer analysis revealed that the putative ATP binding domains appear to fall within two of the phylogenetically conserved RNA binding domains of nucleolin.",
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