The rationale and evidence for use of inhaled antibiotics to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

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Abstract

Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis. This review discusses possible reasons underlying differences in response to inhaled antibiotics in people with CF and NCFBE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with the most severe forms of bronchiectasis. Suboptimal levels of antibiotics in the lung increase the mutation frequency of P. aeruginosa and lead to the development of mucoid strains characterized by formation of a protective polysaccharide biofilm. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa are associated with a chronic infection stage, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy. Inhaled antibiotics provide targeted delivery to the lung with minimal systemic toxicity and adverse events compared with oral/intravenous routes of administration, and they could be alternative treatment options to help address some of the treatment challenges in the management of severe cases of NCFBE. This review provides an overview of completed and ongoing trials that evaluated inhaled antibiotic therapy for NCFBE. Recently, several investigators conducted phase 3 randomized controlled trials with inhaled aztreonam and ciprofloxacin in patients with NCFBE. While the aztreonam trial results were not associated with significant clinical benefit in NCFBE, initial results reported from the inhaled ciprofloxacin (dry powder for inhalation and liposome-encapsulated/dual-release formulations) trials hold promise. A more targeted approach could identify specific populations of NCFBE patients who benefit from inhaled antibiotics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-138
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

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Pseudomonas Infections
Bronchiectasis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Fibrosis
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Aztreonam
Ciprofloxacin
Cystic Fibrosis
Therapeutics
Lung
Case Management
Mutation Rate
Bronchi
Biofilms
Microbiology
Cough
Liposomes
Intravenous Administration
Powders
Inhalation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "The rationale and evidence for use of inhaled antibiotics to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis",
abstract = "Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis. This review discusses possible reasons underlying differences in response to inhaled antibiotics in people with CF and NCFBE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with the most severe forms of bronchiectasis. Suboptimal levels of antibiotics in the lung increase the mutation frequency of P. aeruginosa and lead to the development of mucoid strains characterized by formation of a protective polysaccharide biofilm. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa are associated with a chronic infection stage, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy. Inhaled antibiotics provide targeted delivery to the lung with minimal systemic toxicity and adverse events compared with oral/intravenous routes of administration, and they could be alternative treatment options to help address some of the treatment challenges in the management of severe cases of NCFBE. This review provides an overview of completed and ongoing trials that evaluated inhaled antibiotic therapy for NCFBE. Recently, several investigators conducted phase 3 randomized controlled trials with inhaled aztreonam and ciprofloxacin in patients with NCFBE. While the aztreonam trial results were not associated with significant clinical benefit in NCFBE, initial results reported from the inhaled ciprofloxacin (dry powder for inhalation and liposome-encapsulated/dual-release formulations) trials hold promise. A more targeted approach could identify specific populations of NCFBE patients who benefit from inhaled antibiotics.",
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T1 - The rationale and evidence for use of inhaled antibiotics to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

AU - Dhand, Rajiv

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N2 - Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis. This review discusses possible reasons underlying differences in response to inhaled antibiotics in people with CF and NCFBE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with the most severe forms of bronchiectasis. Suboptimal levels of antibiotics in the lung increase the mutation frequency of P. aeruginosa and lead to the development of mucoid strains characterized by formation of a protective polysaccharide biofilm. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa are associated with a chronic infection stage, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy. Inhaled antibiotics provide targeted delivery to the lung with minimal systemic toxicity and adverse events compared with oral/intravenous routes of administration, and they could be alternative treatment options to help address some of the treatment challenges in the management of severe cases of NCFBE. This review provides an overview of completed and ongoing trials that evaluated inhaled antibiotic therapy for NCFBE. Recently, several investigators conducted phase 3 randomized controlled trials with inhaled aztreonam and ciprofloxacin in patients with NCFBE. While the aztreonam trial results were not associated with significant clinical benefit in NCFBE, initial results reported from the inhaled ciprofloxacin (dry powder for inhalation and liposome-encapsulated/dual-release formulations) trials hold promise. A more targeted approach could identify specific populations of NCFBE patients who benefit from inhaled antibiotics.

AB - Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFBE) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by irreversible dilation of the bronchi, symptoms of persistent cough and expectoration, and recurrent infective exacerbations. The prevalence of NCFBE is on the increase in the United States and Europe, but no licensed therapies are currently available for its treatment. Although there are many similarities between NCFBE and cystic fibrosis (CF) in terms of respiratory symptoms, airway microbiology, and disease progression, there are key differences, for example, in response to treatment, suggesting differences in pathogenesis. This review discusses possible reasons underlying differences in response to inhaled antibiotics in people with CF and NCFBE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with the most severe forms of bronchiectasis. Suboptimal levels of antibiotics in the lung increase the mutation frequency of P. aeruginosa and lead to the development of mucoid strains characterized by formation of a protective polysaccharide biofilm. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa are associated with a chronic infection stage, requiring long-term antibiotic therapy. Inhaled antibiotics provide targeted delivery to the lung with minimal systemic toxicity and adverse events compared with oral/intravenous routes of administration, and they could be alternative treatment options to help address some of the treatment challenges in the management of severe cases of NCFBE. This review provides an overview of completed and ongoing trials that evaluated inhaled antibiotic therapy for NCFBE. Recently, several investigators conducted phase 3 randomized controlled trials with inhaled aztreonam and ciprofloxacin in patients with NCFBE. While the aztreonam trial results were not associated with significant clinical benefit in NCFBE, initial results reported from the inhaled ciprofloxacin (dry powder for inhalation and liposome-encapsulated/dual-release formulations) trials hold promise. A more targeted approach could identify specific populations of NCFBE patients who benefit from inhaled antibiotics.

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