The relationship between exercise, nutrition and type 2 diabetes

Erin Stephenson, William Smiles, John A. Hawley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its precursor, insulin resistance, are metabolic disease states characterized by impaired regulation in the delivery, transport, and/or storage of energy substrates (primarily carbohydrate- and fat-based fuels). A hallmark feature of patients with type 2 diabetes is prolonged periods of hyperglycemia due to a decreased responsiveness of metabolically active peripheral tissues to the actions of insulin (i.e. metabolic inflexibility). Accordingly, efforts to modify skeletal muscle substrate handling in type 2 diabetes patients so that the capacity for fat oxidation and metabolic flexibility is improved should be a primary goal for the treatment of these disorders. Two potent interventions for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis are exercise and diet. A single bout of either resistance or endurance exercise reduces the prevalence and duration of hyperglycemic excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes, an effect lasting well into the next day. With regard to diet, the carbohydrate content of a meal and the glycemic index (GI) of the carbohydrate consumed are both major determinants of the postprandial glycemic response. Diets containing high-GI carbohydrates have been shown to be independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes onset, while in obese insulin-resistant individuals, low-GI diets are effective for inducing both weight loss and improving insulin action and glucose tolerance. The implementation of physical activity and dietary modifications are effective low-cost treatment options for controlling hyperglycemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalMedicine and Sport Science
Volume60
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Exercise
Glycemic Index
Carbohydrates
Diet
Insulin
Fats
Diet Therapy
Glucose
Metabolic Diseases
Hyperglycemia
Health Care Costs
Meals
Insulin Resistance
Weight Loss
Skeletal Muscle
Homeostasis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

The relationship between exercise, nutrition and type 2 diabetes. / Stephenson, Erin; Smiles, William; Hawley, John A.

In: Medicine and Sport Science, Vol. 60, 01.01.2014, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stephenson, Erin ; Smiles, William ; Hawley, John A. / The relationship between exercise, nutrition and type 2 diabetes. In: Medicine and Sport Science. 2014 ; Vol. 60. pp. 1-10.
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