The role of enteroviral infections in the development of IDDM

Limitations of current approaches

Patricia M. Graves, Jill M. Norris, Mark A. Pallansch, Ivan Gerling, Marian Rewers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enteroviruses have been examined for their possible role in the etiology of IDDM for nearly 40 years, yet the evidence remains inconclusive. The mechanism of acute cytolytic infection of β-cells, proposed by earlier studies, appears to be incompatible with the long preclinical period of autoimmunity preceding IDDM. Advances in molecular biology have improved our understanding of enteroviral biology and of potential alternative pathogenic mechanisms through which enteroviruses may cause diabetes. The focus of future human studies will likely shift from people with IDDM to those with prediabetic autoimmunity to determine whether acute enteroviral infections can promote progression from autoimmunity to overt diabetes. We propose that such studies use assays to detect enteroviral RNA, in addition to IgM serology. RNA assays can overcome sensitivity and type-specificity limitations of IgM assays as well as identify diabetogenic strains of enteroviruses, if such exist. Evaluation of the role of enteroviruses in triggering β-cell autoimmunity in humans will require large prospective studies of young children. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young-one of very few such studies currently underway-is focusing on potential interactions between HLA class II genes and enteroviral infections. Future studies will likely examine interactions between viral infections and non- HLA IDDM candidate genes, including those that may determine β-cell tropism of candidate viruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-168
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes
Volume46
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

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Autoimmunity
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Enterovirus
Infection
Immunoglobulin M
RNA
MHC Class II Genes
Tropism
Virus Diseases
Serology
Molecular Biology
Prospective Studies
Viruses
Sensitivity and Specificity
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

The role of enteroviral infections in the development of IDDM : Limitations of current approaches. / Graves, Patricia M.; Norris, Jill M.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Gerling, Ivan; Rewers, Marian.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 46, No. 2, 01.01.1997, p. 161-168.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Graves, Patricia M. ; Norris, Jill M. ; Pallansch, Mark A. ; Gerling, Ivan ; Rewers, Marian. / The role of enteroviral infections in the development of IDDM : Limitations of current approaches. In: Diabetes. 1997 ; Vol. 46, No. 2. pp. 161-168.
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