The use of carnitine in pediatric nutrition

Catherine Herrington, A. Helms Richard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carnitine is synthesized endogenously from methionine and lysine in the liver and kidney and is available exogenously from a meat and dairy diet and from human milk and most enteral formulas. Parenteral nutrition (PN) does not contain carnitine unless it is extemporaneously added. The primary role of carnitine is to transport long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they undergo β-oxidation to produce energy. Although the majority of patients are capable of endogenous synthesis of carnitine, certain pediatric populations, specifically neonates and infants, have decreased biosynthetic capacity and are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, particularly when receiving PN. Studies have evaluated for several decades the effects of carnitine supplementation in pediatric patients receiving nutrition support. Early studies focused primarily on the effects of supplementation on markers of fatty acid metabolism and nutrition markers, including weight gain and nitrogen balance, whereas more recent studies have evaluated neonatal morbidity. This review describes the role of carnitine in metabolic processes, its biosynthesis, and carnitine deficiency syndromes, as well as reviews the literature on carnitine supplementation in pediatric nutrition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-213
Number of pages10
JournalNutrition in Clinical Practice
Volume22
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

Fingerprint

Carnitine
Pediatrics
Parenteral Nutrition
Fatty Acids
Mitochondrial Membranes
Human Milk
Methionine
Meat
Lysine
Small Intestine
Weight Gain
Nitrogen
Newborn Infant
Diet
Morbidity
Kidney
Liver

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

The use of carnitine in pediatric nutrition. / Herrington, Catherine; Richard, A. Helms.

In: Nutrition in Clinical Practice, Vol. 22, No. 2, 01.12.2007, p. 204-213.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Herrington, Catherine ; Richard, A. Helms. / The use of carnitine in pediatric nutrition. In: Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2007 ; Vol. 22, No. 2. pp. 204-213.
@article{0ba24e8cfd9840e4ab60f4e55eaeabe9,
title = "The use of carnitine in pediatric nutrition",
abstract = "Carnitine is synthesized endogenously from methionine and lysine in the liver and kidney and is available exogenously from a meat and dairy diet and from human milk and most enteral formulas. Parenteral nutrition (PN) does not contain carnitine unless it is extemporaneously added. The primary role of carnitine is to transport long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they undergo β-oxidation to produce energy. Although the majority of patients are capable of endogenous synthesis of carnitine, certain pediatric populations, specifically neonates and infants, have decreased biosynthetic capacity and are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, particularly when receiving PN. Studies have evaluated for several decades the effects of carnitine supplementation in pediatric patients receiving nutrition support. Early studies focused primarily on the effects of supplementation on markers of fatty acid metabolism and nutrition markers, including weight gain and nitrogen balance, whereas more recent studies have evaluated neonatal morbidity. This review describes the role of carnitine in metabolic processes, its biosynthesis, and carnitine deficiency syndromes, as well as reviews the literature on carnitine supplementation in pediatric nutrition.",
author = "Catherine Herrington and Richard, {A. Helms}",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0115426507022002204",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "22",
pages = "204--213",
journal = "Nutrition in Clinical Practice",
issn = "0884-5336",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The use of carnitine in pediatric nutrition

AU - Herrington, Catherine

AU - Richard, A. Helms

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Carnitine is synthesized endogenously from methionine and lysine in the liver and kidney and is available exogenously from a meat and dairy diet and from human milk and most enteral formulas. Parenteral nutrition (PN) does not contain carnitine unless it is extemporaneously added. The primary role of carnitine is to transport long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they undergo β-oxidation to produce energy. Although the majority of patients are capable of endogenous synthesis of carnitine, certain pediatric populations, specifically neonates and infants, have decreased biosynthetic capacity and are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, particularly when receiving PN. Studies have evaluated for several decades the effects of carnitine supplementation in pediatric patients receiving nutrition support. Early studies focused primarily on the effects of supplementation on markers of fatty acid metabolism and nutrition markers, including weight gain and nitrogen balance, whereas more recent studies have evaluated neonatal morbidity. This review describes the role of carnitine in metabolic processes, its biosynthesis, and carnitine deficiency syndromes, as well as reviews the literature on carnitine supplementation in pediatric nutrition.

AB - Carnitine is synthesized endogenously from methionine and lysine in the liver and kidney and is available exogenously from a meat and dairy diet and from human milk and most enteral formulas. Parenteral nutrition (PN) does not contain carnitine unless it is extemporaneously added. The primary role of carnitine is to transport long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they undergo β-oxidation to produce energy. Although the majority of patients are capable of endogenous synthesis of carnitine, certain pediatric populations, specifically neonates and infants, have decreased biosynthetic capacity and are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, particularly when receiving PN. Studies have evaluated for several decades the effects of carnitine supplementation in pediatric patients receiving nutrition support. Early studies focused primarily on the effects of supplementation on markers of fatty acid metabolism and nutrition markers, including weight gain and nitrogen balance, whereas more recent studies have evaluated neonatal morbidity. This review describes the role of carnitine in metabolic processes, its biosynthesis, and carnitine deficiency syndromes, as well as reviews the literature on carnitine supplementation in pediatric nutrition.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34249656771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34249656771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0115426507022002204

DO - 10.1177/0115426507022002204

M3 - Review article

VL - 22

SP - 204

EP - 213

JO - Nutrition in Clinical Practice

JF - Nutrition in Clinical Practice

SN - 0884-5336

IS - 2

ER -