Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Central America

Sumit Gupta, Federico A. Antillon, Miguel Bonilla, Ligia Fu, Scott Howard, Raul C. Ribeiro, Lillian Sung

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence, timing, and predictors of treatment-related mortality (TRM) among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. METHODS: Patients aged <20 years who were diagnosed with ALL between January 2000 and March 2008, who received treatment in any of the 3 countries, and who started induction chemotherapy were included in the study. Almost all patients were treated on the El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol, which was based on the St. Jude Total XIII and XV protocols. Biologic, socioeconomic, and nutritional variables were examined as predictors of TRM. RESULTS: Of 1670 patients, TRM occurred as a first event in 156 children (9.3%); TRM occurred during remission induction therapy in 92 of 156 children (59%), between remission induction and maintenance therapy in 27 of 156 children (17%), and during maintenance therapy in 37 of 156 children (24%). Although the TRM rate decreased in patients who were diagnosed after July 1, 2004 (11.2% vs 7.9%; P =.02), the rate of induction death did not change (5.2% vs 5.8%; P =.58). Independent predictors of induction death included higher risk ALL (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.27; P =.04), lower initial platelet counts (OR per 10 × 109/L, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P =.005), and longer travel time to the clinic (OR, 1.06 per hour; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14; P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: In Central America, TRM remains an important cause of treatment failure in children with ALL. A large proportion of TRM occurs in maintenance, although this proportion has decreased over time. Supportive care interventions should especially target children who present with low platelet counts. Further study on transfusion ability and the location of induction deaths is required. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Rates of treatment-related mortality (TRM) were significantly higher in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in low-income countries compared with similar patients in high-income countries. In a cohort of children with ALL across 3 Central American countries, the authors observed that the timing, causes, and predictors of TRM were different in this population than in high-income settings, suggesting that different interventions are required to improve outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4788-4795
Number of pages8
JournalCancer
Volume117
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2011

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Central America
Child Mortality
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Mortality
Therapeutics
El Salvador
Honduras
Guatemala
Remission Induction
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Platelet Count
Induction Chemotherapy
Treatment Failure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Gupta, S., Antillon, F. A., Bonilla, M., Fu, L., Howard, S., Ribeiro, R. C., & Sung, L. (2011). Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Central America. Cancer, 117(20), 4788-4795. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26107

Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Central America. / Gupta, Sumit; Antillon, Federico A.; Bonilla, Miguel; Fu, Ligia; Howard, Scott; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Sung, Lillian.

In: Cancer, Vol. 117, No. 20, 15.10.2011, p. 4788-4795.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gupta, S, Antillon, FA, Bonilla, M, Fu, L, Howard, S, Ribeiro, RC & Sung, L 2011, 'Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Central America', Cancer, vol. 117, no. 20, pp. 4788-4795. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26107
Gupta, Sumit ; Antillon, Federico A. ; Bonilla, Miguel ; Fu, Ligia ; Howard, Scott ; Ribeiro, Raul C. ; Sung, Lillian. / Treatment-related mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Central America. In: Cancer. 2011 ; Vol. 117, No. 20. pp. 4788-4795.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence, timing, and predictors of treatment-related mortality (TRM) among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. METHODS: Patients aged <20 years who were diagnosed with ALL between January 2000 and March 2008, who received treatment in any of the 3 countries, and who started induction chemotherapy were included in the study. Almost all patients were treated on the El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol, which was based on the St. Jude Total XIII and XV protocols. Biologic, socioeconomic, and nutritional variables were examined as predictors of TRM. RESULTS: Of 1670 patients, TRM occurred as a first event in 156 children (9.3{\%}); TRM occurred during remission induction therapy in 92 of 156 children (59{\%}), between remission induction and maintenance therapy in 27 of 156 children (17{\%}), and during maintenance therapy in 37 of 156 children (24{\%}). Although the TRM rate decreased in patients who were diagnosed after July 1, 2004 (11.2{\%} vs 7.9{\%}; P =.02), the rate of induction death did not change (5.2{\%} vs 5.8{\%}; P =.58). Independent predictors of induction death included higher risk ALL (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.27; P =.04), lower initial platelet counts (OR per 10 × 109/L, 0.94; 95{\%} CI, 0.89-0.98; P =.005), and longer travel time to the clinic (OR, 1.06 per hour; 95{\%} CI, 1.01-1.14; P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: In Central America, TRM remains an important cause of treatment failure in children with ALL. A large proportion of TRM occurs in maintenance, although this proportion has decreased over time. Supportive care interventions should especially target children who present with low platelet counts. Further study on transfusion ability and the location of induction deaths is required. Cancer 2011;. {\circledC} 2011 American Cancer Society. Rates of treatment-related mortality (TRM) were significantly higher in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in low-income countries compared with similar patients in high-income countries. In a cohort of children with ALL across 3 Central American countries, the authors observed that the timing, causes, and predictors of TRM were different in this population than in high-income settings, suggesting that different interventions are required to improve outcomes.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence, timing, and predictors of treatment-related mortality (TRM) among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. METHODS: Patients aged <20 years who were diagnosed with ALL between January 2000 and March 2008, who received treatment in any of the 3 countries, and who started induction chemotherapy were included in the study. Almost all patients were treated on the El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol, which was based on the St. Jude Total XIII and XV protocols. Biologic, socioeconomic, and nutritional variables were examined as predictors of TRM. RESULTS: Of 1670 patients, TRM occurred as a first event in 156 children (9.3%); TRM occurred during remission induction therapy in 92 of 156 children (59%), between remission induction and maintenance therapy in 27 of 156 children (17%), and during maintenance therapy in 37 of 156 children (24%). Although the TRM rate decreased in patients who were diagnosed after July 1, 2004 (11.2% vs 7.9%; P =.02), the rate of induction death did not change (5.2% vs 5.8%; P =.58). Independent predictors of induction death included higher risk ALL (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.27; P =.04), lower initial platelet counts (OR per 10 × 109/L, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98; P =.005), and longer travel time to the clinic (OR, 1.06 per hour; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14; P =.03). CONCLUSIONS: In Central America, TRM remains an important cause of treatment failure in children with ALL. A large proportion of TRM occurs in maintenance, although this proportion has decreased over time. Supportive care interventions should especially target children who present with low platelet counts. Further study on transfusion ability and the location of induction deaths is required. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Rates of treatment-related mortality (TRM) were significantly higher in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in low-income countries compared with similar patients in high-income countries. In a cohort of children with ALL across 3 Central American countries, the authors observed that the timing, causes, and predictors of TRM were different in this population than in high-income settings, suggesting that different interventions are required to improve outcomes.

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