Upper airway function during sleep and wakefulness

Experimental studies on normal and anesthetized cats

J. Orem, Ralph Lydic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Normal (N=6) and anesthetized (N=70) cats were used to study the laryngeal abductors, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles, during sleep and wakefulness and to investigate sites within the brainstem that influenced PCA and diaphragmatic activity. The findings were as follows: During wakefulness, PCA activity occurred throughout the respiratory cycle but was most intense during inspiration. Both expiratory and inspiratory PCA activity declined during sleep - the former more so than the latter. The decline in abductor activity was maximal in REM sleep. Barbiturate anesthesia, according to the dosage, produced PCA activity patterns characteristic of either wakefulness or sleep. The brainstem between A4 and P14 was mapped with stimulating electrodes. Rostral brainstem sites showed predominantly facilitatory effects of PAC activity; caudal sites produced predominantly blocking effects. PCA facilitation consisted of (a) an increase in the duration of the PCA burst, (b) an increase in the discharge frequency of the PCA motor units, and (c) a recruitment of larger motor units. PCA blocking effects were the opposite, i.e., burst durations were shortened and motor units were decruited. Facilitatory sites produced clear changes in intensity and duration of PCA activity at stimulation intensities below those necessary to obtain changes in the intensity of diaphragmatic activity. Stimulation of facilitatory sites during expiration caused phase switching to inspiration. In some cases, stimulation during inspiration caused phase switching to expiration. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the obstructive apneas of sleep and in terms of the neural control of breathing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-68
Number of pages20
JournalSleep
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1978
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Wakefulness
Brain Stem
Sleep
Cats
Neurophysiological Recruitment
Laryngeal Muscles
REM Sleep
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Electrodes
Respiration
Anesthesia

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Upper airway function during sleep and wakefulness : Experimental studies on normal and anesthetized cats. / Orem, J.; Lydic, Ralph.

In: Sleep, Vol. 1, No. 1, 01.01.1978, p. 49-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{640e5f0eb98548d5a44dcb193d769e24,
title = "Upper airway function during sleep and wakefulness: Experimental studies on normal and anesthetized cats",
abstract = "Normal (N=6) and anesthetized (N=70) cats were used to study the laryngeal abductors, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles, during sleep and wakefulness and to investigate sites within the brainstem that influenced PCA and diaphragmatic activity. The findings were as follows: During wakefulness, PCA activity occurred throughout the respiratory cycle but was most intense during inspiration. Both expiratory and inspiratory PCA activity declined during sleep - the former more so than the latter. The decline in abductor activity was maximal in REM sleep. Barbiturate anesthesia, according to the dosage, produced PCA activity patterns characteristic of either wakefulness or sleep. The brainstem between A4 and P14 was mapped with stimulating electrodes. Rostral brainstem sites showed predominantly facilitatory effects of PAC activity; caudal sites produced predominantly blocking effects. PCA facilitation consisted of (a) an increase in the duration of the PCA burst, (b) an increase in the discharge frequency of the PCA motor units, and (c) a recruitment of larger motor units. PCA blocking effects were the opposite, i.e., burst durations were shortened and motor units were decruited. Facilitatory sites produced clear changes in intensity and duration of PCA activity at stimulation intensities below those necessary to obtain changes in the intensity of diaphragmatic activity. Stimulation of facilitatory sites during expiration caused phase switching to inspiration. In some cases, stimulation during inspiration caused phase switching to expiration. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the obstructive apneas of sleep and in terms of the neural control of breathing.",
author = "J. Orem and Ralph Lydic",
year = "1978",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/sleep/1.1.49",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "1",
pages = "49--68",
journal = "Sleep",
issn = "0161-8105",
publisher = "American Academy of Sleep Medicine",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Upper airway function during sleep and wakefulness

T2 - Experimental studies on normal and anesthetized cats

AU - Orem, J.

AU - Lydic, Ralph

PY - 1978/1/1

Y1 - 1978/1/1

N2 - Normal (N=6) and anesthetized (N=70) cats were used to study the laryngeal abductors, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles, during sleep and wakefulness and to investigate sites within the brainstem that influenced PCA and diaphragmatic activity. The findings were as follows: During wakefulness, PCA activity occurred throughout the respiratory cycle but was most intense during inspiration. Both expiratory and inspiratory PCA activity declined during sleep - the former more so than the latter. The decline in abductor activity was maximal in REM sleep. Barbiturate anesthesia, according to the dosage, produced PCA activity patterns characteristic of either wakefulness or sleep. The brainstem between A4 and P14 was mapped with stimulating electrodes. Rostral brainstem sites showed predominantly facilitatory effects of PAC activity; caudal sites produced predominantly blocking effects. PCA facilitation consisted of (a) an increase in the duration of the PCA burst, (b) an increase in the discharge frequency of the PCA motor units, and (c) a recruitment of larger motor units. PCA blocking effects were the opposite, i.e., burst durations were shortened and motor units were decruited. Facilitatory sites produced clear changes in intensity and duration of PCA activity at stimulation intensities below those necessary to obtain changes in the intensity of diaphragmatic activity. Stimulation of facilitatory sites during expiration caused phase switching to inspiration. In some cases, stimulation during inspiration caused phase switching to expiration. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the obstructive apneas of sleep and in terms of the neural control of breathing.

AB - Normal (N=6) and anesthetized (N=70) cats were used to study the laryngeal abductors, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles, during sleep and wakefulness and to investigate sites within the brainstem that influenced PCA and diaphragmatic activity. The findings were as follows: During wakefulness, PCA activity occurred throughout the respiratory cycle but was most intense during inspiration. Both expiratory and inspiratory PCA activity declined during sleep - the former more so than the latter. The decline in abductor activity was maximal in REM sleep. Barbiturate anesthesia, according to the dosage, produced PCA activity patterns characteristic of either wakefulness or sleep. The brainstem between A4 and P14 was mapped with stimulating electrodes. Rostral brainstem sites showed predominantly facilitatory effects of PAC activity; caudal sites produced predominantly blocking effects. PCA facilitation consisted of (a) an increase in the duration of the PCA burst, (b) an increase in the discharge frequency of the PCA motor units, and (c) a recruitment of larger motor units. PCA blocking effects were the opposite, i.e., burst durations were shortened and motor units were decruited. Facilitatory sites produced clear changes in intensity and duration of PCA activity at stimulation intensities below those necessary to obtain changes in the intensity of diaphragmatic activity. Stimulation of facilitatory sites during expiration caused phase switching to inspiration. In some cases, stimulation during inspiration caused phase switching to expiration. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the obstructive apneas of sleep and in terms of the neural control of breathing.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018238661&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018238661&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/sleep/1.1.49

DO - 10.1093/sleep/1.1.49

M3 - Article

VL - 1

SP - 49

EP - 68

JO - Sleep

JF - Sleep

SN - 0161-8105

IS - 1

ER -