Use of saline contrast echo timing to distinguish intracardiac and extracardiac shunts

Failure of the 3- to 5-beat rule

Jonathan A. Freeman, Timothy Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is thought to be associated with cryptogenic stroke and migraine headache. Saline contrast echocardiography (SCE) is the gold standard for identifying the presence of right-to-left shunt, whether from PFO or pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). The timing of left heart contrast entry during SCE is used to distinguish a PFO from a PAVM, a method that is not as specific as previously thought. In this report, we describe a patient with a SCE demonstrating the early appearance of left heart bubbles during good effort Valsalva injections that is ultimately proven to be due to a PAVM. The case illustrates the limited specificity of left heart contrast timing during SCE as the sole criteria for differentiating intracardiac and extracardiac shunts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1127-1130
Number of pages4
JournalEchocardiography
Volume25
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Patent Foramen Ovale
Echocardiography
Arteriovenous Malformations
Lung
Migraine Disorders
Stroke
Injections

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Use of saline contrast echo timing to distinguish intracardiac and extracardiac shunts : Failure of the 3- to 5-beat rule. / Freeman, Jonathan A.; Woods, Timothy.

In: Echocardiography, Vol. 25, No. 10, 01.11.2008, p. 1127-1130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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