Vancomycin treatment failure in children with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

Rebecca B. Regen, Sarah S. Schuman, Rebecca F. Chhim, Sandra Arnold, Kelley Lee

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES Limited data exist regarding clinical outcomes of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children treated with vancomycin. Treatment success in adults correlates best with an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24 /MIC) ratio ≥400. It is unknown if this relationship is useful in children. METHODS Charts of children who received vancomycin ≥5 days for MRSA bacteremia with a steady state trough were reviewed. AUC24 /MIC ratios were estimated using 2 different vancomycin clearance equations. Vancomycin treatment failure was defined as persistent bacteremia ≥7 days, recurrent bacteremia within 30 days, or 30-day mortality. RESULTS There were 67 bacteremia episodes in 65 patients. Nine (13.4%) met failure criteria: persistent bacteremia (n = 6), recurrent bacteremia (n = 2), 30-day mortality (n = 1). There were no differences between patients receiving <60 mg/kg/day and ≥60 mg/kg/day of vancomycin in median trough (11.9 versus 12.3 mg/L, p = 0.1). Troughs did not correlate well with AUC24 /MIC ratios (R2 = 0.32 and 0.22). Patients receiving ≥60 mg/kg/day had greater probability of achieving ratios ≥400. There were no significant differences in median dose (p = 0.8), trough (p = 0.24), or AUC24 /MIC ratios (p = 0.07 and p = 0.6) between patients with treatment success and failure. CONCLUSIONS Treatment failure was lower than previously reported in children. AUC24 /MIC ratios ≥400 were frequently achieved but were not associated with treatment success, dose, or troughs. Prospective studies using standard definitions of vancomycin treatment failure are needed to understand treatment failure in children with MRSA bacteremia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)312-319
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

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Vancomycin
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Bacteremia
Treatment Failure
Area Under Curve
Mortality
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Prospective Studies
Pediatrics
Therapeutics
Infection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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Vancomycin treatment failure in children with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. / Regen, Rebecca B.; Schuman, Sarah S.; Chhim, Rebecca F.; Arnold, Sandra; Lee, Kelley.

In: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 24, No. 4, 01.07.2019, p. 312-319.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVES Limited data exist regarding clinical outcomes of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children treated with vancomycin. Treatment success in adults correlates best with an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24 /MIC) ratio ≥400. It is unknown if this relationship is useful in children. METHODS Charts of children who received vancomycin ≥5 days for MRSA bacteremia with a steady state trough were reviewed. AUC24 /MIC ratios were estimated using 2 different vancomycin clearance equations. Vancomycin treatment failure was defined as persistent bacteremia ≥7 days, recurrent bacteremia within 30 days, or 30-day mortality. RESULTS There were 67 bacteremia episodes in 65 patients. Nine (13.4{\%}) met failure criteria: persistent bacteremia (n = 6), recurrent bacteremia (n = 2), 30-day mortality (n = 1). There were no differences between patients receiving <60 mg/kg/day and ≥60 mg/kg/day of vancomycin in median trough (11.9 versus 12.3 mg/L, p = 0.1). Troughs did not correlate well with AUC24 /MIC ratios (R2 = 0.32 and 0.22). Patients receiving ≥60 mg/kg/day had greater probability of achieving ratios ≥400. There were no significant differences in median dose (p = 0.8), trough (p = 0.24), or AUC24 /MIC ratios (p = 0.07 and p = 0.6) between patients with treatment success and failure. CONCLUSIONS Treatment failure was lower than previously reported in children. AUC24 /MIC ratios ≥400 were frequently achieved but were not associated with treatment success, dose, or troughs. Prospective studies using standard definitions of vancomycin treatment failure are needed to understand treatment failure in children with MRSA bacteremia.",
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N2 - OBJECTIVES Limited data exist regarding clinical outcomes of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children treated with vancomycin. Treatment success in adults correlates best with an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24 /MIC) ratio ≥400. It is unknown if this relationship is useful in children. METHODS Charts of children who received vancomycin ≥5 days for MRSA bacteremia with a steady state trough were reviewed. AUC24 /MIC ratios were estimated using 2 different vancomycin clearance equations. Vancomycin treatment failure was defined as persistent bacteremia ≥7 days, recurrent bacteremia within 30 days, or 30-day mortality. RESULTS There were 67 bacteremia episodes in 65 patients. Nine (13.4%) met failure criteria: persistent bacteremia (n = 6), recurrent bacteremia (n = 2), 30-day mortality (n = 1). There were no differences between patients receiving <60 mg/kg/day and ≥60 mg/kg/day of vancomycin in median trough (11.9 versus 12.3 mg/L, p = 0.1). Troughs did not correlate well with AUC24 /MIC ratios (R2 = 0.32 and 0.22). Patients receiving ≥60 mg/kg/day had greater probability of achieving ratios ≥400. There were no significant differences in median dose (p = 0.8), trough (p = 0.24), or AUC24 /MIC ratios (p = 0.07 and p = 0.6) between patients with treatment success and failure. CONCLUSIONS Treatment failure was lower than previously reported in children. AUC24 /MIC ratios ≥400 were frequently achieved but were not associated with treatment success, dose, or troughs. Prospective studies using standard definitions of vancomycin treatment failure are needed to understand treatment failure in children with MRSA bacteremia.

AB - OBJECTIVES Limited data exist regarding clinical outcomes of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children treated with vancomycin. Treatment success in adults correlates best with an area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24 /MIC) ratio ≥400. It is unknown if this relationship is useful in children. METHODS Charts of children who received vancomycin ≥5 days for MRSA bacteremia with a steady state trough were reviewed. AUC24 /MIC ratios were estimated using 2 different vancomycin clearance equations. Vancomycin treatment failure was defined as persistent bacteremia ≥7 days, recurrent bacteremia within 30 days, or 30-day mortality. RESULTS There were 67 bacteremia episodes in 65 patients. Nine (13.4%) met failure criteria: persistent bacteremia (n = 6), recurrent bacteremia (n = 2), 30-day mortality (n = 1). There were no differences between patients receiving <60 mg/kg/day and ≥60 mg/kg/day of vancomycin in median trough (11.9 versus 12.3 mg/L, p = 0.1). Troughs did not correlate well with AUC24 /MIC ratios (R2 = 0.32 and 0.22). Patients receiving ≥60 mg/kg/day had greater probability of achieving ratios ≥400. There were no significant differences in median dose (p = 0.8), trough (p = 0.24), or AUC24 /MIC ratios (p = 0.07 and p = 0.6) between patients with treatment success and failure. CONCLUSIONS Treatment failure was lower than previously reported in children. AUC24 /MIC ratios ≥400 were frequently achieved but were not associated with treatment success, dose, or troughs. Prospective studies using standard definitions of vancomycin treatment failure are needed to understand treatment failure in children with MRSA bacteremia.

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