Women and Heart Disease: The Role of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia

Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Elsa Grace V. Giardina, Anselm K. Gitt, Uwe Gudat, Helmut O. Steinberg, Diethelm Tschoepe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

141 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of death in women, and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of CVD compared with nondiabetic women. The increment in risk attributable to diabetes is greater in women than in men. The extent to which hyperglycemia contributes to heart disease risk has been examined in observational studies and clinical trials, although most included only men or did not analyze sex differences. The probable adverse influence of hyperglycemia is potentially mediated by impaired endothelial function, and/or by other mechanisms. Beyond high blood glucose level, a number of other common risk factors for CVD, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cigarette smoking, are seen in women with diabetes and require special attention. Presentation and diagnosis of CVD may differ between women and men, regardless of the presence of diabetes. Recognizing the potential for atypical presentation of CVD in women and the limitations of common diagnostic tools are important in preventing unnecessary delay in initiating proper treatment. Based on what we know today, treatment of CVD should be at least as aggressive in women-and especially in those with diabetes-as it is in men. Future trials should generate specific data on CVD in women, either by design of female-only studies or by subgroup analysis by sex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)934-942
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Volume164
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2004

Fingerprint

Hyperglycemia
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Dyslipidemias
Sex Characteristics
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Observational Studies
Blood Glucose
Cause of Death
Smoking
Clinical Trials
Hypertension
Therapeutics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Barrett-Connor, E., Giardina, E. G. V., Gitt, A. K., Gudat, U., Steinberg, H. O., & Tschoepe, D. (2004). Women and Heart Disease: The Role of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(9), 934-942. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.9.934

Women and Heart Disease : The Role of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia. / Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Giardina, Elsa Grace V.; Gitt, Anselm K.; Gudat, Uwe; Steinberg, Helmut O.; Tschoepe, Diethelm.

In: Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 164, No. 9, 10.05.2004, p. 934-942.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Barrett-Connor, E, Giardina, EGV, Gitt, AK, Gudat, U, Steinberg, HO & Tschoepe, D 2004, 'Women and Heart Disease: The Role of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia', Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 9, pp. 934-942. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.9.934
Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth ; Giardina, Elsa Grace V. ; Gitt, Anselm K. ; Gudat, Uwe ; Steinberg, Helmut O. ; Tschoepe, Diethelm. / Women and Heart Disease : The Role of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia. In: Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 164, No. 9. pp. 934-942.
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